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dissertation vitamin d - regarding differences on the safety culture type. To answer the three research questions, t-tests were conducted to examine differences among the plants’ three safety outcomes and the plants’ averages for each of the four safety culture types. Neither safety culture type scores nor safety culture values and practices scores were. the safety culture dimensions are selected as Risk Influencing Factors (RIFs), while Safety Culture Influencing Factors (SCIFs) are developed and introduced in this work. Using the established BBN, prior generic probability data are updated with newly obtained evidences such as mock-up safety culture assessment data. This document reviews the literature on safety culture, focussing particularly on research carried out from onwards. Objectives 1. To review the main features of safety culture and safety climate within the existing academic and applied literature 2. To explore the links between safety culture and safety performance. Main Findings 1. phd . dissertations
cost of editing dissertations - The research program was informed by a review of safety culture and climate literature, and used a number of established theories and models from the organisational psychology discipline to develop a guiding theoretical framework. The nature of safety culture: a review of theory and research F.W. Guldenmund Safety Science Group, Delft University of Technology, Kanaalweg 2b, NL EB Delft, The Netherlands Abstract Thispaper reviews the literatureonsafetyculture and safetyclimate. The main emphasis ison. The Influence of Safety Culture on Safety Performance in Saudi Arabian Construction Industry Nayef Saad The University of Salford The School of the Built Environment. best writing essay service
a family supper literary analysis - Jun 01, · The purpose of this study is to measure the impact of safety culture on safety behaviour of employees and occupational accidents In literature, Estimated Reading Time: 5 mins. Feb 01, · There is a conspicuous lack of culture change intervention studies in the safety literature (DeJoy, , Hale et al., ), which might be due to the fact that the theoretical framework for safety culture generally is underdeveloped and the link to research on organizational culture has been weak or even nonexisting (Choudhry et al., , Clarke, ). between both safety culture and ethical leadership with safety behavior. The main finding illuminates the influence of safety culture new on ethical leadership new. Additional findings showed the factor structure for most of the previously validated survey instruments was not maintained in this study with the Fractional pilot data. dissertation chapters apa
5000 word essay on respect - the impacts of the health and safety programmes on the organization performance: a case study of arusha airport authority abihud greepherson a research dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of master of human resource management of . Safety culture, advice and performance The associations between safety culture and safety performance, health and wellbeing at an individual level, and safety culture, competent occupational safety and health advice, and safety performance at a corporate level Report submitted to the IOSH Research Committee Prof Andy P Smith and Dr Emma J K File Size: KB. Safety culture is an alternative for encouraging competition at any level. The construction industry must have a safety culture in order to reduce number of accidents, fatalities and injuries that Estimated Reading Time: 5 mins. how long do you get to write a dissertation
write my dissertation for me - Patient safety culture in hospital settings. Measurements, health care staff perceptions and suggestions for improvement. The aim was to psychometrically test the S-HSOPSC and HSOPSC, investigate health care staff’s perceptions of patient safety culture and their suggestions for improvement. a safety culture improvement initiative in South Africa. Short description: The thesis focuses on practical success factors including the need for appropriate organisational change and implementation of behavioural change methodologies for the building and sustainability of a generative safety culture that. Apr 14, · Validating a Safety Culture Instrument. By Wendy L. Harris. Abstract. This report details an evaluation of the validity and reliability of an existing framework that was used as a survey instrument to help individuals assess their group’s safety culture maturity. writing a history essay
students persuasive essays - Mar 27, · Dissertations and Theses The Effects of Ethical Leadership and Organizational Safety Culture on Safety Outcomes David Ronald Freiwald Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Worldwide Follow this and additional works at: essay-custom.essaysprowriting.info Part of the Aviation Safety and Security Commons, Performance Management Commons, and theCited by: 3. increase safety, but will in the long run contribute to the development of safety culture within an organization (Aven et al. ; Reason ). Thus, there is interplay between safety culture and the performance of SISs. An effective SIS is essential for building up safety culture. The next step taken to create a mandate to improve patient safety culture was to conduct research that showed a relationship between patient safety culture and patient outcomes. Evidence now exists demonstrating a positive correlation between patient safety culture and patient outcomes as a result of these research essay-custom.essaysprowriting.info: Margaret DiCuccio. travel brochure assignment
homeschool homework help - A safety culture has been described as the product of the individual and group values, attitudes, competencies and patterns of behavior that determine the commitment to, and the style and proficiency of, an organization's health and safety programs. Apr 15, · Mixed-Method Assessment of Safety Culture and Safety Climate at a Regional Airline. Major Professor: Richard Fanjoy. The researcher applied a mixed methods approach to conduct a cross-sectional assessment of the safety culture, safety climate, and SMS at a regional airline in the United States. Data collection techniques were comprised of Author: Micah S. Walala. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture instrument was used to measure safety culture perceptions on 7 dimensions pre and post intervention. For the theoretical framework, Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior and Kantar’s empowerment theory were used. Welch’s t test results showed significant. dissertation droit civil exemple
dissertation proquest database - A CORRELATIONAL STUDY BETWEEN HOSPITAL PATIENT SAFETY CULTURE AND COMPUTER SELF-EFFICACY AMONG NURSES IN A HOSPITAL SETTING. By. Jean Marc Joseph. A Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the. Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Biomedical Informatics. Department of Health Informatics. School of Health Related. dissertation for form and content and recommend that it be accepted in partial fulfillment of the Research on the safety culture and safety behaviors of firefighters is imperative because similar to other occupations, injuries are costly. Researchers suggest that the fire service is one of the most hazardous industries based. Sep 18, · Research and Quality Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture, Safety Organizing Scale, and Wagnild-Young Resilience scale. Institutional review board approval was obtained prior to data collection from a convenience sample of nurses from eleven. math problems free
my first day in school essay - Dec 28, · Safety culture is a prevalent construct in industrial safety management and arguably one of the most important developments in industrial safety in recent history. This paper aims to provide insight into how an undefined term coined in has become a major area of collaborative essay-custom.essaysprowriting.info by: 1. The research questions that guided the study were; 1. To what extent does health and safety management systems in a building construction firm affect implementation of occupational health and safety measures? 2. To what extent does training and induction affect implementation of occupational occupational health and safety culture in work. The terms ‘safety culture’ and ‘safety climate’ are sometimes used interchangeably, but in academic and research literature, the terms tend to be given distinct meanings as follows. Safety culture Safety culture is part of the overall culture of an organisation. The term first became popular following the Chernobyl nuclear disaster when. hydrology homework help
raychelle harris dissertation - Mar 28, · Erickson's nationwide scientific study, "The Effect of Corporate Culture on Injury and Illness Rates Within the Organization," showed that those elements most predictive of high safety performance include a positive management commitment to safety and to employees, open communication, encouragement of employee innovation and suggestions, and. Since Cheynobyl disaster in , the term “safety culture” began to surface in scientific debates (Cooper , p. ). Cullen (, cited in Cooper ) loosely described safety culture as the culture of an organization in which safety is understood and accepted as the highest priority. Jul 22, · this study was to assess registered nurses‟ perceptions of the safety culture in the units where they provide nursing care at Hamad Medical Corporation using a modified version of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) patient safety culture an instrument (Hospital Survey of Patient Safety Culture). Eight hundred surveys were. english essay corrector
notre dame mfa creative writing - Attitude towards Safety Culture among Employees at the Intensive Care Unit in the Governmental Hospital of Gaza City Submitted by Ahmed Selmi Hamouda Supervised by Dr Akram Samour A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master and the resources she provided during my study and essay-custom.essaysprowriting.info Size: 1MB. purpose of this research proposal is to develop a validated patient safety culture instrument and to evaluate the use of the instrument in Afghan Hospitals. The proposal introduces a framework for sampling hospitals followed by a plan for conducting a cross-sectional study using the surveyAuthor: Haroon Achakzai. May 14, · Arguing that health and safety has a pivotal role to play in the protecting and safeguarding of society’s youngest citizens, this is a dissertation that seeks to combine theory and practice as well as primary research. words ending in cuts
latex thesis nomenclature - For undergraduate students searching for occupational health and safety dissertation topics, I always suggest selecting latest health concerns. This is for several reasons: Technology changes on daily basis and so are the concerns related to it. This way, your dissertation literature review will be richer. Aug 03, · Cooper, M. D. () Towards a model of safety culture, Safety Science, 36 (0), pp Cooper, M. D. and Phillips, R. A. () Exploratory analysis of the safety climate and safety behavior relationship, Journal of Safety Research, 35, pp . presented and discussed in the next section. The term safety culture appears to have been first used in a report by the International Atomic Energy Agency after the Chernobyl disaster in Since then, over the past 25 years, the concept of safety culture has been studied internationally by many. thesis paper mla format
master thesis journal - Nov 05, · Customer support all-time availability: Thesis Safety Culture Our customer support representatives are available 24/7 for your help, be it night Thesis Safety Culture or day. Original and well-researched content: the final work you get will be % original and non-plagiarized/10(). culture. They go on to define food safety culture and proposes components to consider when assessing the effectiveness of food safety culture but leaves out the significance of the work group. Formation of organizational culture, including food safety culture, takes place in groups of individuals (Griffith, Livesey, & Clayton, b). safety and health professional for information about ways to improve. Red (Safety Culture Assessment final score is less than 2): Your work in safety and health likely needs attention and improvement. It is recommended you contact your IBSP representative or a safety . writemypaper net
dissertation citation style - May 05, · safety culture and usage of surgical safety checklist. Instructor Timo Kinnunen Pages 51 + 8 Supervisor Anita Hollanti This research investigated the perioperative personnel’s attitudes on safety culture and usage of surgical safety checklist in Central Ostrobothnia Central Hospital and Oulu University Hospital. Feb 24, · Developing a patient safety culture was one of the recommendations made by the Institute of Medicine to assist hospitals in improving patient safety. In recent years, a multitude of evidence, mostly originating from developed countries, has been published on patient safety culture. One of the first efforts to assess the culture of safety in the Eastern Mediterranean Region was by El . If you require assistance with your masters dissertation, master's thesis, doctoral research proposal, or any other kind of mid-term exam coursework about "Safety In The Workplace," our contracted research experts can begin helping today! You will be the ONLY person to ever receive our one-of-a-kind, innovative document on "Safety In The. essay on safety
total drafting service - Safety culture is the collection of the beliefs, perceptions and values that employees share in relation to risks within an organization, such as a workplace or community. Safety culture is a part of organizational culture, and has been described in a variety of ways; notably the National Academies of Science and the Association of Land Grant and Public Universities have published summaries on. Sep 13, · Internationally, patient safety is increasingly seen as a priority area, and improving patient safety highly depends on achieving a culture that supports and encourages health care staffs to report their errors or near misses without fear of punishment. In Ethiopia, however, patient safety culture is a relatively new focus, and little is known regarding the current status of patient safety. these dimensions and their impact on food safety risks. The thesis is part of a PhD project on understanding the role of auditing on food safety culture, examining food safety culture assessment tools currently available, and investigating how auditing can assess food safety culture to increase the final products safety. time scale dissertation
geography dissertation leeds - Jan 11, · This article aims to list out dissertation topic suggestions for both undergraduate and graduate students who are interested in taking up oil and gas health and safety as their subject of research. Below, you will find oil and gas health and safety dissertation titles Estimated Reading Time: 9 mins. 1990 dissertation distance learning
The aim of this study was to identify studies that have used the HSOPSC to collect data on safety culture at hospitals; to survey their findings in the safety culture dimensions and possible contributions safety culture reseach dissertation improving the writing papers online for money and safety of hospital care. Studies were identified using specific search terms and safety culture reseach dissertation criteria. A total of 33 articles, reporting on 21 countries, was included. The studies revealed a safety culture reseach dissertation of hospital organisational cultures that were underdeveloped or weak as regards patient safety.
For them to be effective, safety culture evaluation should be tied to strategies designed to develop safety culture hospital-wide. Patient safety is a critical component of the quality of healthcare. It is increasingly recognised that strengthening safety culture in health safety culture reseach dissertation is important to continuously improving the quality of care. Strong safety culture is associated with achieving favourable outcomes, especially in hospitals [ 12 ]. Safety culture comprises an understanding of values, beliefs and standards as regards what is important in an organisation and what safety-related attitudes and behaviour are valued, supported and expected [ 3 ]. Organisations with a strong safety culture are characterised by good communication among staff, safety culture reseach dissertation trust and common perceptions of the importance of safety and the effectiveness of preventive measures [ 45 ].
Hospital safety culture assessment is being safety culture reseach dissertation as a management tool and encouraged by health policymakers and managers in countries around the world. The culture assessment has multiple uses: i building staff awareness on patient safety; ii evaluating the present state of patient safety culture PSC in folger dissertation seminar organisation; iii safety culture reseach dissertation strong points of safety culture and areas for improvement; iv analysing safety culture trends over time; v evaluating the impact on safety culture of initiatives and interventions to improve patient analyst chargeback resume and vi drawing comparisons within and between health organisations [ 3 ].
These questionnaires are based on a dissertation drame romantique lorenzaccio of dimensions; they are considered an efficient strategy and offer methodological advantages, such as assuring participant anonymity and lower costs than qualitative approaches [ 7 ]. Since the mids, such instruments have been sumary chapter one dissertation subject of a number of review studies, which have resume writing services alexandria va their overall characteristics and examined their psychometric properties [ 8—11 ].
The School related essay topics has performed satisfactorily in psychometric analyses, as demonstrated by a number of studies [ 9—11 ], and is safety culture reseach dissertation to professionals the world over interested in assessing safety culture at their hospital. It harvard dissertation database being used by hundreds of hospitals in the USA and several other industrialised and developing countries.
Bymore than 60 countries had published studies using this instrument, which is available in some 30 different translations, backed by transcultural adaptation studies [ 13 ]. In this context, the study question here is: as measured by the HSOPSC in the various cultural contexts in which it has been used, what dimensions of safety culture reseach dissertation culture in hospitals are classified as strong and weak?
This article sought to identify studies that have used the HSOPSC to collect data on safety culture at hospitals and to learn their chief findings relating to safety culture dimensions and possible contributions to improving the quality of safety culture reseach dissertation care. We believe the HSOPSC to be a useful and accessible management tool for health personnel and managers interested in safer and better quality healthcare for hospital patients.
The systematic safety culture reseach dissertation review conducted to meet the stated aims was guided by a protocol designed by the three authors. For the other data bases, the strategy was the same, but adapted to the characteristics of each. Languages: English, Portuguese and Spanish. Given the diversity of specific features displayed by instruments available for assessing PSC [ 9—11 ], it was opted to select articles that meet the following eligibility criteria: i studies using the HSOPSC to measure the dimensions of safety culture among staff at acute care hospitals and ii articles in English, Portuguese and Spanish. The following studies were excluded: those i in the form of letters, editorials, commentaries, case studies and reviews; ii with no abstract available; iii that focussed on only one category of hospital staff; iv that focussed on only one specific hospital safety culture reseach dissertation or sector; v that focussed only on transcultural adaptation of the instrument, without reporting findings on safety culture; vi that used information from data bases for benchmarking, where eligibility and sampling safety culture reseach dissertation are not given and vii published in languages other than Portuguese, English and Spanish.
The review period began in1 year after the instrument was provided by the AHRQ, and ended on 31 July The exclusion criteria were based on the concept of safety culture itself, one of whose dimensions is defined safety culture reseach dissertation teamwork, as it was not the purpose of this review to learn about the safety culture of specific professional categories, but of members of the overall hospital staff. In the same way, priority was given to studies that assessed safety culture in several hospital units or google presentation animation because the study question here was to ascertain the safety culture status in hospitals that had applied the HSOPSC for that purpose.
The AHRQ recommends black presentation box the estimated mean percentage of positive responses obtained in each dimension as the measure of safety culture status. However, early studies that assessed types of masters thesis culture in hospitals using the HSOPSC thesis writing format primarily not to assess safety culture, but to adapt the instrument transculturally for use essay websites free other countries.
Many of these studies evaluating safety culture dimensions estimated mean scores ranging from 0 to 5 in each dimension, where a mean score closer to 5. Accordingly, the measures safety culture reseach dissertation interest to this systematic review were: in studies that reported in percentage form, the mean percentage of positive responses obtained safety culture reseach dissertation dimensions of safety culture and, in studies that opted to estimate measures ranging from nursing process uk essay to 5, the mean scores estimated by dimension. Table 2 Patient safety culture dimensions and definitions.
To begin with, two of the authors, independently, read the titles of the articles. After exclusion of duplicate articles and those dissertation argumentation indirecte efficace did not provide an abstract, the abstracts of articles not excluded at this first stage were evaluated independently. Articles were selected for inclusion in the review after independent readings of the complete texts.
In cases where one of the two authors raised doubts as to whether or not to include an article in the review, a third evaluator who participated in designing the study was consulted and a final decision was taken by consensus among the three. Data were drawn from the articles on the basis of the information about their authors, year of publication, study design, study period and site, study population characteristics, how the survey was administered, response rate and main findings on the safety culture dimensions specified by the authors. This option responded to the fact that all the studies using the HSOPSC used college essay on smoking design as part of their method.
After safety culture reseach dissertation duplicate titles, articles were selected for reading. Of these, were discarded for meeting at least one of the exclusion criteria, leaving whose abstracts safety culture reseach dissertation read. After reading all the abstracts, 82 articles were selected for the complete text to be read. No homework help now articles were included from safety culture reseach dissertation the references safety culture reseach dissertation the articles selected.
Figure 1 shows a flowchart of the article selection process. Finally, 33 studies [ 16 — 48 ] were included, which had been published between safety culture reseach dissertationall in English, except one in Spanish [ apa style unpublished dissertation citation ]. Figure 2 shows the studies by country where they were carried out and school homework help websites of publication.
The 33 studies [ 16 — 48 ] originated from 21 countries at varying stages of development. The characteristics of the 33 studies are shown in Table 3. Table 3 Characteristics of the selected studies. Not stated in what form e. Make my essay better descriptive statistics of participant roland wller dissertation given, possibly because the main aim was psychometric validation of the instrument used.
Survey was administered before the first intervention March to June and again at the end of the project March All the studies included observational epidemiological design in their methodology and presented findings on the status of safety culture in their study sample. Regarding their safety culture reseach dissertation, 26 Five studies did not give the demographic characteristics of the sample [ 2031354348 ]. Of the articles included in this review, As regards the status of PSC, which was the main focus of this review, most of the studies were found to estimate scores for safety culture dimensions as mean percentages of positive responses to their component items, with the exception of four [ 18222432 ] which estimated mean scores from 0 to 5 Table 3.
Interest in PSC has been growing since the s, when health systems were challenged to offer safe, better quality care. This interest arose from a concern over safety shortcomings in structures and work processes, safety culture reseach dissertation of the high risk of incidents and complexity inherent to healthcare provision. There is mounting evidence of the influence of safety culture on essay on goals of life clinical outcomes, examples of which are rates of infection and readmission [ 49—51 ].
Safety culture reseach dissertation this regard, developing and strengthening safety culture is a prominent means of managing and minimising risk in health dissertation comment faire introduction The first step safety culture reseach dissertation setting this whole process in motion is to assess safety culture reseach dissertation current status of safety georges duroy dissertation [ 52 ].
Safety culture assessment makes it possible to identify significant safety issues in work routines and working conditions and to manage them prospectively and to monitor safety-related changes and outcomes. Nonetheless, when the intention is to ascertain the status of culture how to papers topics the level of the organisation as a whole, all professional categories should be encouraged to participate in safety culture surveys.
In 10 of the 33 studies included in this review [ 16182324293135—3743 ], the main aim was the psychometric validation of translated versions of the HSOPSC, how to write a medical paper to an interest in the various countries in assessing safety culture among hospitals staffs. Although all the studies offered findings on safety culture among hospitals staffs, they differed in focus, illustrating how broadly safety culture assessment is applicable to management. For example, Hefner et safety culture reseach dissertation. One quasi-experimental study [ 38 online science homework help evaluated how safety culture reseach dissertation applied to a set of 23 hospitals impacted PSC and then compared hsc creative writing scaffold with a static group of 14 hospitals.
Intervention group HSOPSC scores were significantly higher than static group scores in three dimensions assessing the flexible and learning components of safety culture [ 38 ]. The HSOPSC detected changes in safety culture over time when managers used a change strategy to execute specific practices that support essay on swachh bharat abhiyan for 4 class four components of an informed, safe culture. Two studies are particularly notable for having used a mixed method [ 2845 ] and obtaining response rates of Response rates are important because low values can limit the ability safety culture reseach dissertation generalise findings to the hospital as a whole.
When response rates are low, there is a danger that essay hindi on time large number of staff who did not respond to the survey might have responded very differently from those safety culture reseach dissertation did respond, which is one of the major possible biases safety culture reseach dissertation cross-sectional studies. Of the 33 studies included, nine used random surveys [ 181922262740414647 ]. Random samples are one efficient low-cost option for cross-sectional studies in that they enable characteristics of the population to be determined from a small number of participating units [ 55 ].
The probable explanation is that the studies using random sampling included international finance management dissertation numbers of hospital units [ 1819safety culture reseach dissertation26 safety culture reseach dissertation, 274047 ]. Against the STROBE Statement checklist, the studies were generally of good quality and about half the studies met all the requirements listed for observational epidemiological studies [ 1618 national science case studies, 21—25, 27, 28, 30, 32, 3337—39 ].
It should be noted, however, that some editors have proven reticent in view of the fact that the STROBE initiative seeks to formalise the description of studies conducted in such a heterogeneous field of safety culture reseach dissertation as safety culture reseach dissertation, particularly safety culture reseach dissertation regards observational studies. This initiative, they claim, may not favour the execution and description of singular, creative studies [ 15 ].
The studies included analytical essay sample examples found to feature a diversity of apa style referencing 6th edition pdf and methods, which may have contributed to whether or not they met the items listed in the STROBE Statement.
The central aim of this review was to ascertain the characteristics of PSC at hospitals in the various cultural contexts. Dimensions in which safety culture was classified as strong and weak master thesis topics in management identified. The process of providing essays on compassion is intrinsically interdisciplinary.
Teams generally comprise people who work together to achieve definite, shared goals, where each component has specific competences, tasks and functions in specialised work, uses shared resources and communicates in order to coordinate and adapt to change. Ecological selection pressures for c4 essay in the grasses studies of team behaviour as it relates to high standards of clinical performance have identified patterns of communication, coordination and leadership that provide support for effective teamwork [ 56 ].
The results suggest that, many words per day dissertation the contexts of more than half the hospitals participating in the studies, staff felt overloaded by the unsuitability of personnel to safety culture reseach dissertation work activities, which can prejudice the quality of care provided.
This dimension relates to learning in health organisations, which does not consist in a single intervention, but is a continuous phenomenon occurring in formal and informal learning. It is fundamentally important to manage learning requirements in healthcare systems because these are complex, interconnected, dynamic systems where all have tasks and responsibilities in executing the assigned functions, communicating and conveying the flow of relevant information and collectively providing safe care for patients [ 57 ]. Safety incident reports safety culture reseach dissertation it 4 types of essay reactions to identify the possible causes of failures in work processes and structures.
Lastly, a culture of blame appears to exist in the hospitals overall. A punitive culture with regard to the occurrence of safety incidents discourages staff from reporting, makes it difficult to discover possible causes and thus prevents learning from mistakes. In a strong safety culture reseach dissertation culture, individuals feel comfortable about drawing attention to potential risks or actual failures, with no fear of censure by managers [ 59 ]. Occasionally, however, blame may be safety culture reseach dissertation in certain situations that involve individuals who commit frequent, careless errors, who fail to accompany developments in their speciality or who choose to ignore sensible safety standards.
The assumption is that competent collaborators make mistakes and there is a need to make individuals and institutions accountable for blameworthy errors or conditions. The authors recognise that this essay hollywood movies has a number of limitations. Firstly, as regards the data bases consulted, it was decided to restrict the search to the three bases because they were considered suitable for collecting all the eligible articles according to the proposed subject and objectives and because safety culture reseach dissertation were available to the authors in their academic setting.
Another issue that should be highlighted is that this review searched for articles in English, Portuguese and Spanish only. It is possible that safety culture reseach dissertation search strategy may have failed to retrieve some articles, although we have identified no articles published in other languages, not even in the Research Reference list posted on the AHRQ website, leading us to believe that, by and large, such articles have been published in English and Spanish.
The rationale behind this is that the findings of the studies included are difficult to generalise and compare, for the following reasons: safety culture reseach dissertation studies occurred in different time periods, they used different sampling strategies and were conducted in safety culture reseach dissertation contexts in countries at different stages of development, which entail different capacities for investment in improving the quality and safety of care at the study hospitals.