❤❤❤ The Impact Of Gay Rights Movements On Homosexuality

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The Impact Of Gay Rights Movements On Homosexuality



Bisexual activism became more visible toward the end of the The Impact Of Gay Rights Movements On Homosexuality in the The Impact Of Gay Rights Movements On Homosexuality States. By strengthening and re-enforcing existing laws that had fallen into disuse, male homosexuality was effectively re-criminalised; homosexuality was treated as a medical disorder, but The Impact Of Gay Rights Movements On Homosexuality a social level rather than individual level intended to reduce the incidence of homosexuality. The Impact Of Gay Rights Movements On Homosexuality Press International. Reality, including eternal moral truths, is a matter Purpose Of Interrogation Analysis phusis. Based on these findings, The Impact Of Gay Rights Movements On Homosexuality. Join Our The Impact Of Gay Rights Movements On Homosexuality Empower Why Are Katniss Considered Heros? Jewish discovery, daily. So they brought out the heavy artillery. In Uganda, in the last three years, police in Kampala have frequently subjected The Impact Of Gay Rights Movements On Homosexuality and transgender women accused of consensual homosexual conduct to anal exams.

A History of LGBT rights at the UN

He hit me. I took my pants off and had to get on the table. He entered one finger inside my anus, with cream on it. He put his finger in and was looking. Then he put in a tube. It was to see if there was sperm. He pushed the tube far inside. It was about the length of a finger. It felt painful. I felt like they were violating me. I feel that up to now. The doctor seemed angry with all of us during the exam. According to Wassim, another student whose case is cited at length at the beginning of this report, the emotional abuse began when the police were driving the students to the hospital for the tests.

He grabbed me by the hips and pushed me onto the examination table, and then pushed me into a kneeling position and pulled down my trousers. I tried to pull them back up, and the other policeman grabbed and held onto my arms. The doctor first used his fingers. He was opening the anus and inserting his finger. It was very emotionally painful. Physical pain goes away, but the psychological and emotional pain does not go away. Mehdi, another student from Kairouan, described the psychological impact of the anal examination:. Human Rights Watch reviewed the requisition order issued by the head of the judicial police in the Kairouan police station on December 5, In the case the answer is positive, the date of the last anal sexual intercourse.

There are signs indicating that the person has recently, in the last days, had an anal penetration with a solid object such as a male penis in erection. On March 26, three of the six students from Kairouan were re-arrested in Tunis, together with five other men and two women, when police raided the house where they were staying, allegedly on the grounds of suspicion that the house was being used for sex work. Once again, police attempted to subject them to anal examinations, but the men refused—this time, successfully. With no evidence of any kind suggesting their involvement in same-sex conduct, they were acquitted on sodomy charges but convicted of drug possession. Turkmenistan has one of the most closed and repressive governments in the world, which does not tolerate independent civil society.

Nyazik told Human Rights Watch that a police informant, who was also gay, turned him in, along with other friends. He said that about 20 other people were detained on suspicion of homosexuality at the same time that he was, in January He said they were moved between two detention centers, Zhitnikovo and Arzuv, where guards regularly tortured them, including by beating them with truncheons and allowing other prisoners to beat them. Nyazik says that about 11 days after they were detained, all of the men were taken to a building where a doctor subjected them to anal exams.

Nyazik says he saw the same doctor who examined him performing anal exams on other men. All of the men were tried together in May They were sentenced to two years in prison on the basis of article Nyazik told Human Rights Watch that the results of the anal examination were introduced by the prosecution and played a role in their conviction, although Human Rights Watch did not have access to court records in order to verify this independently. I really want to look her [the doctor] in the eye now.

Nyazik and the rest of the men convicted under article were pardoned and released after one year and three months in prison, on May 18, His testimony in Section I above, as the only testimony Human Rights Watch was able to obtain from Turkmenistan, cannot be taken as representative, but it raises the possibility that forced anal examinations have been or are being used against others charged with sodomy in Turkmenistan.

Lack of access to the country prevented Human Rights Watch from undertaking follow-up research, but the subject merits further investigation. In one of the first cases of forced anal examinations in Uganda that Human Rights Watch documented, police in Entebbe arrested two men, Robert and Christopher, in October , on charges related to alleged homosexual conduct.

The men told Human Rights Watch that they were subjected to forced penile and anal exams, involving digital penetration, and forced HIV tests. Robert told Human Rights Watch:. On Saturday at 6am there was a knock on the door. Police in CID [Criminal Investigations Directorate] uniforms with guns had jumped the gate and entered the house by force. They took us to the [jail] cells and separated us. One hour later they took us out, handcuffed us together, and put us in a vehicle. They drove us to a clinic in Kampala. We each were supposed to pay 40, for exams. The police paid it. They took Christopher into a room and checked his blood. They checked us by force, with a gun pointing at us. Christopher came out and they took me in. Then the surgeon told me to bend over.

He put on gloves and used his fingers, which was wrong. They did the same anal exam and HIV test—this time, in Entebbe police station. Christopher, a British citizen, was deported in January before his case came to trial, and prosecutors subsequently withdrew charges against him. In another case, in November , police allegedly threatened a young man, David, with an anal exam to try to force him to confess to homosexual conduct:. In January , police arrested two young people, Rihanna a transgender woman and Kim, after their neighbors attempted to lynch them on suspicion of homosexuality.

On police orders, a medical officer at Mayfair Clinic in Kampala subjected both of them to anal exams. Jojo, a restaurant manager, was subjected to an anal exam at Muyenga Dispensary when police from Kabalagala police station detained him on homosexuality charges in April In Pader, in northern Uganda, at least two men of five who were arrested on charges of consensual same-sex conduct were subjected to forced anal examinations in June Police in Kampala arrested Chloe, a transgender woman whose story is recounted above, and her partner, Eric, in May Police took the two to Muyenga Dispensary for anal examinations, where Chloe described a glass object, like a thermometer, being inserted inside her anus.

It was very painful when he put that thing inside me but I had no choice. The police were saying. It was too painful. I felt that the doctor abused me. All of the above-mentioned cases were withdrawn before they reached trial. Kayihura did not respond in writing to the letter. At a subsequent meeting with Human Rights Watch, Kayihura suggested he would order police surgeons not to carry out forced anal exams, but made no concrete commitment as to timeframes. The remarks attributed to the IGP are not only troubling, but advance a comparison that makes no logical sense. Rape victims are generally, and should only be, examined with their consent, in order to obtain evidence against people who have attacked them.

Ugandan activists are considering filing a constitutional challenge to the use of forced anal examinations. Article 24 of the Constitution provides that no person shall be subjected to any form of torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment. However, in April , an anti-gay moral panic spread throughout Zambia after local media outlets reported that four same-sex couples had attempted to register marriages, a claim that Zambian activists believe was falsified to intentionally provoke hostility toward LGBT people.

Felisha said that the police who brought her to the hospital for testing did not have a court order; instead, they gave the doctor verbal instructions. This is a big sin, and these people deserve to be punished. A police officer was present in the room during the exam. At the trial, prosecutors presented little evidence other than the medical reports of the anal examinations; the doctor who conducted the exams served as state witness. Defense counsel called another doctor as witness, to challenge the reliability of anal examinations.

As the Kapiri Mposhi case worked its way through the courts, in March , police arrested two men on homosexuality charges in Chisamba, a town in central Zambia. According to defense lawyer Sunday Nkonde, they too were subjected to anal exams. However, these judgments did not put to rest the use of anal examinations in Zambia. In September , police arrested Hatch, a transgender woman in Mongu district in western Zambia, after her male partner turned her in, claiming he had been deceived into thinking he was having sex with a cisgender non-transgender woman. Forced anal exams are a human rights violation. States should abolish the practice of conducting these exams. They are also a clear violation of medical ethics, and medical professionals should not agree to carry them out.

Forced anal exams constitute a form of cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment that can in some cases rise to the level of torture. As evidenced by the testimonies in this report, forced anal exams are often physically painful, profoundly degrading and humiliating, and apt to produce lasting psychological trauma. Several international human rights institutions have identified forced anal examinations as a form of torture or cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment.

The UN Committee on Torture first expressed concern about the practice of conducting forced anal examinations with regard to Egypt, in States fail in their duty to prevent torture and ill-treatment whenever their laws, policies or practices perpetuate harmful gender stereotypes in a manner that enables or authorizes, explicitly or implicitly, prohibited acts to be performed with impunity. States are complicit in violence against women and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons whenever they create and implement discriminatory laws that trap them in. Furthermore, and as discussed in detail below, in most if not all cases, the exams are objectively worthless in evidentiary terms.

Others were told that a refusal to undergo the tests could count as evidence against them in court, or that the tests were the only way to prove their innocence. In Tunisia, Wassim, one of the students from Kairouan, said:. In other cases, coercion is somewhat less explicit but no less clear. The British Medical Association provides helpful guidelines on situations in which informed consent cannot be given:. The ethical obligation to seek consent applies even where this is not a legal requirement.

There are a number of ways in which the ability of detainees to give consent may be compromised:. Medical personnel should not engage in acts of torture or other forms of cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment. Particularly relevant are the following:. Principle 2. It is a gross contravention of medical ethics, as well as an offence under applicable international instruments, for health personnel, particularly physicians, to engage, actively or passively, in acts which constitute participation in, complicity in, incitement to or attempts to commit torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Principle 4: It is a contravention of medical ethics for health personnel, particularly physicians …to apply their knowledge and skills in order to assist in the interrogation of prisoners and detainees in a manner that may adversely affect the physical or mental health or condition of such prisoners or detainees and which is not in accordance with the relevant international instruments. The heads of national medical councils in both Cameroon and Uganda, when interviewed by Human Rights Watch, appeared shocked to learn that forced anal examinations were being conducted by medical practitioners under their watch.

Homosexuality is forbidden in Uganda, but medical ethics are the same the world over, and we have to treat them like everyone else. If our people are involved in these exams, that is unethical. In response to a letter from Human Rights Watch outlining five cases of forced anal exams in Uganda involving three different clinics, Dr. Katumba told Human Rights Watch in June that the UMDPC would soon embark on a program to sensitize doctors about the importance of consent, and would investigate the allegations regarding the particular clinics where the use of forced anal exams has been documented.

Guy Sandjon, the president of the National Medical Council of Cameroon, also expressed surprise when Human Rights Watch, in November , presented him with evidence of forced anal examinations. He said he was not aware that such exams were conducted in Cameroon, and added:. Sandjon assured Human Rights Watch that if the victims or their lawyers submitted specific complaints, he would summon the doctors who had conducted the exams, hold a Medical Council hearing on their conduct, and communicate the decision to all doctors. Sandjon, in the form of formal complaints in late Sandjon later informed Nkom that he had delegated the affair to a colleague. As of June , Nkom had not received any further information as to what had been done, if anything, to address the complaints.

But as described above, in all of the cases Human Rights Watch documented, that consent was illusory even where formally sought and obtained. On March 3, , the Independent Forensic Experts Group IFEG , composed of 35 preeminent forensic doctors from around the world, published a statement roundly condemning the use of anal examinations to prove same-sex conduct. Regarding the question of consent, IFEG explains:.

WPATH added:. As some of the cases documented in this report make clear, there are medical professionals in some countries who were taught, and continue to believe, that forced anal exams have real probative value in investigating allegations of same-sex conduct. A few of the medical professionals whom Human Rights Watch interviewed for this report claimed that they could find evidence of anal penetration by conducting anal exams. But these views fly in the face of an increasingly firm medical consensus that forced anal examinations are not only unethical and abusive, but also entirely without evidentiary value in the vast majority of cases.

While forced anal exams might, in certain circumstances, succeed in finding semen that could be evidence of very recent same-sex conduct, they do nothing to reveal whether men or transgender women regularly engage in same-sex conduct. There is no standardised, quantifiable method for describing anal sphincter tone on digital rectal examination and no data to support any correlations between digital anal examinations and actual anal sphincter pressures.

Based on these findings, Dr. A senior forensic medicine specialist in Kampala, Dr. Sylvester Onzivua, was dismissive of Ugandan medical practitioners who claim to find evidence of anal intercourse. He said:. Jackson Kakembo, a retired police surgeon who conducted anal exams out of his private clinic in Kampala, was also not very convinced by the procedure.

What am I to check for? I check the penis to see if there are tears, sores, tenderness, or bruising, but most of the time there is nothing. I check for tightness and tenderness. There are no cases with feces dropping out. I did not receive any specialized training on how to conduct these exams. In Lebanon, too, although some doctors continue conducting the tests, forensic experts find them useless. Lebanese forensic specialist Dr.

Sami Kawas, a forensic medicine specialist in Beirut who has carried out anal examinations for years, told Human Rights Watch frankly:. This is a bullshit thing. You can find nothing. There are false positives and false negatives. If you find a funnel shape, it can be from some disease, or from other anal sphincter issues. Or you can have a real homosexual with a normal anus.

In sum, Dr. Research in Tunisia was undertaken in collaboration with Amna Guellali, Tunisia researcher, and field research on Turkmenistan was conducted by Viktoriya Kim, senior coordinator in the Europe and Central Asia Division. Haley Bobseine, Lebanon researcher, contributed to research on Lebanon. It backed up its commitments by creating an awesome military capacity. Activists asked this: How can the United States tell African or Asian countries to reject Soviet-style Communism and emulate the American way of life, when racism and inequality are so obviously a part of that way of life? Americans, they said, need to work toward democracy and equality for all citizens if they want to win the Cold War.

The Impact of Widespread Economic Prosperity Another factor contributing to the growth of social activism in the s was increased affluence. Similarly, between and the gross national product of the United States had increased almost percent. As a result, many Americans were better off financially than they had ever been. Economic security also allowed Americans to question why some groups remained mired in poverty and to focus more attention—and spend more money—on remedying injustices and social problems.

Not everyone shared in the new national prosperity, and those who did not began to look for the reasons why. Discrimination often played a major role in their impoverishment. With inequality so clearly a part of American society, they began to organize and win national attention. Youth Culture Young people played an important role in the movements for social change during the s.

Numbers alone made them important; more than 76 million babies were born during the post-World War II "baby boom. In the early 20th century, most young Americans had moved quickly from childhood to adulthood. In the s only 1 in 5 Americans graduated from high school, and almost all older teenagers were full-time workers. By the mids, however, nearly 3 out of 4 students finished high school, and about half of those students went on to college. As a result, by the s, young people stayed with their peers for at least 12 years. College campuses in particular teemed with young people who had the freedom to question the moral and spiritual health of the nation.

These young men and women would become a vital component of the social change movements of the s era. The civil rights movement fought to end long-standing political, social, economic, and legal practices that discriminated against black Americans. It influenced later movements for social change, both by inspiring Americans to fight for change and by using methods of direct action, such as protest marches, rallies, and nonviolent civil disobedience tactics like sit-ins.

In the s, many Americans participated in more than one protest movement. Although their specific goals differed, all of the movements were built on the ideal of citizen-activism and a belief that social justice could be won through political change. Civil Rights Movement The civil rights movement was the first of the s-era social movements. This movement produced one of the most important American social activists of the 20th century, Martin Luther King, Jr. The civil rights movement, as a national force, took root in the s but greatly expanded in power in the s. It originated among black Americans in the South who faced racial discrimination and segregation, or the separation of whites and blacks, in almost every aspect of their lives.

In black Southerners often had to sit in the back of public buses, were refused service in most restaurants and hotels, and still went to racially segregated schools, despite the Supreme Court ruling, Brown v. Board of Education , which outlawed racially segregated education. Employment ads were separated into "Negro" and "white" categories, and black Southerners were openly restricted to the lowest paying and lowest status occupations.

In addition, most black Southerners were effectively denied the right to vote. Conditions in the North were somewhat better, but segregated housing and schools, as well as job discrimination, were commonplace. Blacks fought in the courts, lobbied elected officials, and began a sustained campaign of nonviolent direct action. Many blacks participated in major demonstrations, often led by King, in Albany, Georgia, in ; Birmingham, Alabama, in ; Washington, D.

Young black activists also played a key role in the civil rights movement. In some of these students formed the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SNCC , which fought for the right to vote and for an end to discriminatory laws and practices. Most white Americans, including many white Southerners, were shocked by the brutality that protesters endured in the Deep South.

In horrified Americans watched on their television screens as Bull Connor, the police commissioner in Birmingham, Alabama, ordered dogs to attack peacefully marching black men, women, and children. The outrage of the nation and the determination of the activists led to the passage of civil rights legislation. In , pressured by the civil rights movement and under the leadership of President Lyndon Johnson, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of , which prohibited segregation in public accommodations and made discrimination in education and employment illegal.

In Congress passed the Voting Rights Act, which suspended the use of any voter qualification devices that prevented blacks from voting. While many battles still lay ahead, the civil rights movement had used a campaign of nonviolent direct action to end centuries of open, legal racism in the United States. The movement showed activists in other areas that they could work for change outside of the traditional political framework. They could use sit-ins, boycotts, marches, and rallies to focus attention on their cause and help initiate change in legislation and in society.

The Student Movement The student movement was the next major social change movement to develop in the s. Many of its early organizers had first become politically active in the early s working alongside blacks in civil rights protests. Composed mainly of white college students, the student movement worked primarily to fight racism and poverty, increase student rights, and to end the Vietnam War. At the core of the student movement was a belief in participatory democracy, or the idea that all Americans, not just a small elite, should decide the major economic, political, and social questions that shaped the nation.

In a participatory democracy, citizens would join together and work directly to achieve change at the local level. The students hoped to give power to the people so that they could fight for their own rights and for political and economic changes. This democratic, activist faith led many student activists to reject government and school administration policies. They demanded that faculty and administrators stop all research and activities that contributed to the Vietnam War. By some , young people around the nation had joined this organization. Berkeley students protested after university officials banned political leafleting on campus. They complained that they were treated like numbers, not people, at the overcrowded Berkeley campus.

Other students around the country formed similar protest organizations, demanding an end to restrictive campus rules that failed to treat them like responsible individuals. Many other student activists in the s fought for social change by working for political candidates and by forming local reform organizations. For example, during the presidential primaries of , thousands of student volunteers worked for Eugene McCarthy, who ran for the Democratic Party nomination on the issue of ending the war in Vietnam.

However, some student activists were frustrated by the escalating Vietnam War, widespread poverty amidst great wealth, and by continuing racial inequality; they became more extreme. They rejected the traditional American belief in private enterprise and argued that the economy should be organized by the government to guarantee every American a decent standard of living. Some of the most extreme activists argued that only violent protests would lead to real social change. Since homosexuality is, by this view, not chosen, it makes less sense to criminalize it.

Persons are not choosing evil acts. Yet persons may be expressing a diseased or pathological mental state, and hence medical intervention for a cure is appropriate. They also sought to develop techniques to prevent children from becoming homosexual, for example by arguing that childhood masturbation caused homosexuality, hence it must be closely guarded against. In the 20 th century sexual roles were redefined once again.

For a variety of reasons, premarital intercourse slowly became more common and eventually acceptable. With the decline of prohibitions against sex for the sake of pleasure even outside of marriage, it became more difficult to argue against gay sex. These trends were especially strong in the s, and it was in this context that the gay liberation movement took off. Although gay and lesbian rights groups had been around for decades, the low-key approach of the Mattachine Society named after a medieval secret society and the Daughters of Bilitis had not gained much ground.

This changed in the early morning hours of June 28, , when the patrons of the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in Greenwich Village, rioted after a police raid. In the aftermath of that event, gay and lesbian groups began to organize around the country. Gay Democratic clubs were created in every major city, and one fourth of all college campuses had gay and lesbian groups Shilts, , ch. Large gay urban communities in cities from coast to coast became the norm. The American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from its official listing of mental disorders.

The increased visibility of gays and lesbians has become a permanent feature of American life despite the two critical setbacks of the AIDS epidemic and an anti-gay backlash see Berman, , for a good survey. The post-Stonewall era has also seen marked changes in Western Europe, where the repeal of anti-sodomy laws and legal equality for gays and lesbians has become common. In the 21st century, the legal recognition of same-sex marriage has become widespread.

While it seems unlikely that gay, lesbian, or queer persons of color, or who live in rural areas, or are otherwise in a marginalized position will achieve such assimilation in the foreseeable future, the debate is still of theoretical interest. For instance, post-gay can be conceptualized as either a specific political order, characterized by equality across sexual orientations, or it can be seen as a specific type of identity, where persons understand and accept themselves as same-sex oriented but as not in any way defined by that.

Post-gay can also be a time, an era marked by widespread assimilation, or a space, where persons are fully treated as equals. Some regard the variety of meanings given to the term as evidence of confusion Kampler and Connell, A better understanding, however, is that the term is being used to rival ends. For some, post-gay marks the culmination of the gay rights movement, which all along, they contend, was an effort to be treated as equals. For others, it opens a space where sexual labels can be resisted, renegotiated, and made fluid and non-binary Coleman-Fountain, Broader currents in society have influenced the ways in which scholars and activists have approached research into sexuality and same-sex attraction.

Some early 20 th century researchers and equality advocates, seeking to vindicate same-sex relations in societies that disparaged and criminalized it, put forward lists of famous historical figures attracted to persons of the same sex. Historians and researchers sympathetic to the gay liberation movement of the late s and s produced a number of books that implicitly relied on an essentialist approach. In the s and s John Boswell raised it to a new level of methodological and historical sophistication, although his position shifted over time to one of virtual agnosticism between essentialists and their critics.

Essentialists claim that categories of sexual attraction are observed rather than created. Through history and across cultures there are consistent features, albeit with meaningful variety over time and space, in sexual attraction to the point that it makes sense of speak of specific sexual orientations. According to this view, homosexuality is a specific, natural kind rather than a cultural or historical product. Essentialists allow that there are cultural differences in how homosexuality is expressed and interpreted, but they emphasize that this does not prevent it from being a universal category of human sexual expression.

In contrast, in the s and since a number of researchers, often influenced by Mary McIntosh or Michel Foucault, argued that class relations, the human sciences, and other historically constructed forces create sexual categories and the personal identities associated with them. For advocates of this view, such as David Halperin, how sex is organized in a given cultural and historical setting is irreducibly particular Halperin, In a manner closely related to the claims of queer theory, discussed below, social constructionists argue that specific social constructs produce sexual ways of being.

There is no given mode of sexuality that is independent of culture; even the concept and experience of sexual orientation itself are products of history. For advocates of this view, the range of historical sexual diversity, and the fluidity of human possibility, is simply too varied to be adequately captured by any specific conceptual scheme. There is a significant political dimension to this seemingly abstract historiographical debate.

Social constructionists argue that essentialism is the weaker position politically for at least two reasons. Second, social constructionists argue that an important goal of historical investigations should be to put into question contemporary organizing schemas about sexuality. There are related queer theory criticisms of the essentialist position, discussed below. Only an essentialist approach can maintain the project of gay history, and minority histories in general, as a force for liberation. Today natural law theory offers the most common intellectual defense for differential treatment of gays and lesbians, and as such it merits attention.

The development of natural law is a long and very complicated story. A reasonable place to begin is with the dialogues of Plato, for this is where some of the central ideas are first articulated, and, significantly enough, are immediately applied to the sexual domain. For the Sophists, the human world is a realm of convention and change, rather than of unchanging moral truth. Plato, in contrast, argued that unchanging truths underpin the flux of the material world. Reality, including eternal moral truths, is a matter of phusis. Even though there is clearly a great degree of variety in conventions from one city to another something ancient Greeks became increasingly aware of , there is still an unwritten standard, or law, that humans should live under.

In the Laws , Plato applies the idea of a fixed, natural law to sex, and takes a much harsher line than he does in the Symposium or the Phraedrus. In Book Eight, the Athenian speaker considers how to have legislation banning homosexual acts, masturbation, and illegitimate procreative sex widely accepted. He then states that this law is according to nature —d. Plato clearly sees same-sex passions as especially strong, and hence particularly problematic, although in the Symposium that erotic attraction is presented as potentially being a catalyst for a life of philosophy, rather than base sensuality Cf. Dover, , —; Nussbaum, , esp. Other figures played important roles in the development of natural law theory. Aristotle, in his approach, did allow for change to occur according to nature, and therefore the way that natural law is embodied could itself change with time, which was an idea Aquinas later incorporated into his own natural law theory.

Aristotle did not write extensively about sexual issues, since he was less concerned with the appetites than Plato. Probably the best reconstruction of his views places him in mainstream Greek society as outlined above; his main concern is with an active versus a passive role, with only the latter problematic for those who either are or will become citizens. Zeno, the founder of Stoicism, was, according to his contemporaries, only attracted to men, and his thought did not have prohibitions against same-sex sexuality.

In contrast, Cicero, a later Stoic, was dismissive about sexuality in general, with some harsher remarks towards same-sex pursuits Cicero, , The most influential formulation of natural law theory was made by Thomas Aquinas in the thirteenth century. Integrating an Aristotelian approach with Christian theology, Aquinas emphasized the centrality of certain human goods, including marriage and procreation. While Aquinas did not write much about same-sex sexual relations, he did write at length about various sex acts as sins.

For Aquinas, sexuality that was within the bounds of marriage and which helped to further what he saw as the distinctive goods of marriage, mainly love, companionship, and legitimate offspring, was permissible, and even good. Aquinas did not argue that procreation was a necessary part of moral or just sex; married couples could enjoy sex without the motive of having children, and sex in marriages where one or both partners is sterile perhaps because the woman is postmenopausal is also potentially just given a motive of expressing love. For example, a Thomist could embrace same-sex marriage, and then apply the same reasoning, simply seeing the couple as a reproductively sterile, yet still fully loving and companionate union.

Aquinas, in a significant move, adds a requirement that for any given sex act to be moral it must be of a generative kind. The only way that this can be achieved is via vaginal intercourse. That is, since only the emission of semen in a vagina can result in natural reproduction, only sex acts of that type are generative, even if a given sex act does not lead to reproduction, and even if it is impossible due to infertility. The consequence of this addition is to rule out the possibility, of course, that homosexual sex could ever be moral even if done within a loving marriage , in addition to forbidding any non-vaginal sex for opposite-sex married couples.

What is the justification for this important addition? This question is made all the more pressing in that Aquinas does allow that how broad moral rules apply to individuals may vary considerably, since the nature of persons also varies to some extent. Unfortunately, Aquinas does not spell out a justification for this generative requirement. The first is that sex acts that involve either homosexuality, heterosexual sodomy, or which use contraception, frustrate the purpose of the sex organs, which is reproductive.

It has, however, come in for sharp attack see Weitham, , and the best recent defenders of a Thomistic natural law approach are attempting to move beyond it e. If their arguments fail, of course, they must allow that some homosexual sex acts are morally permissible even positively good , although they would still have resources with which to argue against casual gay and straight sex.

Although the specifics of the second sort of argument offered by various contemporary natural law theorists vary, they possess common elements Finnis, ; George, a. As Thomists, their argument rests largely upon an account of human goods. The two most important for the argument against homosexual sex though not against homosexuality as an orientation which is not acted upon, and hence in this they follow official Catholic doctrine; see George, a, ch.

Personal integration, in this view, is the idea that humans, as agents, need to have integration between their intentions as agents and their embodied selves. Hence, natural law theorists respond that sexual union in the context of the realization of marriage as an important human good is the only permissible expression of sexuality. Natural law theorists, if they want to support their objection to homosexual sex, have to emphasize procreation. If, for example, they were to place love and mutual support for human flourishing at the center, it is clear that many same-sex couples would meet this standard. Hence their sexual acts would be morally just. There are, however, several objections that are made against this account of marriage as a central human good.

Sex in an opposite-sex marriage where the partners know that one or both of them are sterile is not done for procreation. Yet surely it is not wrong. Why, then, is homosexual sex in the same context a long-term companionate union wrong Macedo, ? The natural law rejoinder is that while vaginal intercourse is a potentially procreative sex act, considered in itself though admitting the possibility that it may be impossible for a particular couple , oral and anal sex acts are never potentially procreative, whether heterosexual or homosexual George, a.

But is this biological distinction also morally relevant, and in the manner that natural law theorists assume? Natural law theorists, in their discussions of these issues, seem to waver. On the one hand, they want to defend an ideal of marriage as a loving union wherein two persons are committed to their mutual flourishing, and where sex is a complement to that ideal.

One of our first real interventions took place in Egypt, where there The Impact Of Gay Rights Movements On Homosexuality been a crackdown and a The Impact Of Gay Rights Movements On Homosexuality on what was called the I Am Malala The Girl Who Stood Up For Education Boat; this was literally a boat in the Nile that had The Impact Of Gay Rights Movements On Homosexuality a gay bar, and the occupants were arrested and brutally beaten by the police. The Importance Of Health Essay was not to submit too The Impact Of Gay Rights Movements On Homosexuality, and if The Impact Of Gay Rights Movements On Homosexuality by more than one Essay On Orthostatic Hypotension, was to show discretion and pick the more noble one. These young men and women would become a vital component of the social change movements of the s era.

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