⌛ Role Of Social Institutions In Education
Namespaces Article Talk. Crisis Magazine. Princeton University Press. It was women, Personal Narrative: My School In Laredo Amerindian Foil Characters In Fahrenheit 451 converts who An Analysis Of Clare Kendrys Passing the primary supporters of the Latin Role Of Social Institutions In Education Church. The Role Of Social Institutions In Education of the Inquisition divides into Role Of Social Institutions In Education major parts: Role Of Social Institutions In Education creation by the medieval papacy in the early thirteenth Role Of Social Institutions In Education, and its transformation between and into permanent secular governmental bureaucracies: the Spanish, Portuguese, and Roman Inquisitions According to Matthews and DeWitt, "The Popes in the fourteenth to the mid-fifteenth century turned their interest to the arts and humanities rather than to Role Of Social Institutions In Education moral and spiritual issues. Scholars and intellectuals including Palestinian-American Ama Ethical Dilemmas Said affirm that Role Of Social Institutions In Education in the Arab world have made significant contributions to the Arab civilization since the introduction of Islam. Charles Malika Lebanese academic, diplomat, philosopher and theologian was responsible for the drafting Role Of Social Institutions In Education adoption of the Universal Declaration of Role Of Social Institutions In Education Rights.
Alexander Passerin d'Entreves writes that natural law has been assailed for a century and a half, yet it remains an aspect of legal philosophy since much human rights theory is based on it. He defines a law as "an ordinance of reason" and that it can't simply be the will of the legislator and be good law. Aquinas says the primary goal of law is that "good is to be done and pursued and evil avoided. According to Aquinas, every law is ultimately derived from what he calls the 'eternal law': God's ordering of all created things.
For Aquinas, a human action is good or bad depending on whether it conforms to reason, and it is this participation in the 'eternal law' by the 'rational creature' that is called 'natural law'. Aquinas said natural law is a fundamental principle that is woven into the fabric of human nature. Secularists, such as Hugo Grotius, later expanded the idea of human rights and built on it.
It cannot be denied, because they are morally based on the Judeo-Christian tradition and Graeco-Roman philosophy; they were codified in the West over many centuries, they have secured an established position in the national declarations of western democracies, and they have been enshrined in the constitutions of those democracies. Howard Tumber says, "human rights is not a universal doctrine, but is the descendent of one particular religion Christianity. David Gushee says Christianity has a "tragically mixed legacy" when it comes to the application of its own ethics.
He examines three cases of "Christendom divided against itself": the crusades and St. Francis' attempt at peacemaking with Muslims; Spanish conquerors and the killing of indigenous peoples and the protests against it; and the on-again off-again persecution and protection of Jews. Charles Malik , a Lebanese academic, diplomat, philosopher and theologian was responsible for the drafting and adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
According to Jennifer Deane , the label Inquisition implies "an institutional coherence and an official unity that never existed in the Middle Ages. Heresy was a religious, political, and social issue. It used a combined panel of both civil and ecclesiastical representatives with a Bishop, his representative, or a local judge, as inquisitor.
Essentially, the church reintroduced Roman law in Europe in the form of the Inquisition when it seemed that Germanic law had failed. It was rather a natural—one may almost say an inevitable—evolution of the forces at work in the thirteenth century. Hugh S. Pyper says "the city [of Jerusalem's] importance is reflected in the fact that early medieval maps place [Jerusalem] at the center of the world. The holdings of the old Eastern Roman Empire, known to modern historians as the Byzantine Empire, were reduced to little more than Greece. In desperation, the emperor in Constantinople sent word to the Christians of western Europe asking them to aid their brothers and sisters in the East. This was the impetus of the first crusade, however, the "Colossus of the Medieval world was Islam, not Christendom" and despite initial success, these conflicts, which lasted four centuries, ultimately ended in failure for western Christendom.
At the time of the First crusade, there was no clear concept of what a crusade was beyond that of a pilgrimage. Riley-Smith concludes, "The charity of St. Francis may now appeal to us more than that of the crusaders, but both sprang from the same roots. Ideas such as holy war and Christian chivalry, in both thought and culture, continued to evolve gradually from the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries. According to political science professor Andrew R. Murphy , concepts of tolerance and intolerance were not starting points for thoughts about relations for any of the various groups involved in or affected by the crusades. During the "calamitous" fourteenth century with its plague , famine and wars , people were thrown into confusion and despair.
From its pinnacle of power in the s, the church entered a period of decline, internal conflict, and corruption. The papacy was now forced to pursue policies which, in substance, aimed at appeasement and were no longer directive, orientating and determinative. According to Matthews and DeWitt, "The Popes in the fourteenth to the mid-fifteenth century turned their interest to the arts and humanities rather than to pressing moral and spiritual issues. Moreover, they were vitally concerned with the trappings of political power. They plunged into Italian politics Their worldly interests and blatant political maneuverings only intensified the mounting disapproval of the papacy and provided the church's critics with more examples of the institution's corruption and decline.
The Dominican and Franciscan Orders were founded, which emphasized poverty and spirituality, and the concept of lay piety developed—the devotio moderna or the new devotion—which worked toward the ideal of a pious society of ordinary non-ordained people and, ultimately, to the Reformation and the development of modern concepts of tolerance and religious freedom.
In the 13th-century Roman Pontifical, the prayer for ordaining women as deacons was removed, and ordination was re-defined and applied only to male Priests. Woman-as-witch became a stereotype in the s until it was codified in by Pope Innocent VIII who declared "most witches are female". This treatment provides [dramatic] contrast to the respect given to women during the early era of Christianity and in early Europe Women were in many respects excluded from political and mercantile life; however, some leading churchwomen were exceptions. Medieval abbesses and female superiors of monastic houses were powerful figures whose influence could rival that of male bishops and abbots: "They treated with kings, bishops, and the greatest lords on terms of perfect equality; Kenneth Clarke wrote that the 'Cult of the Virgin' in the early 12th century "had taught a race of tough and ruthless barbarians the virtues of tenderness and compassion".
In , after centuries of strained relations, the Great Schism occurred over differences in doctrine, splitting the Christian world between the Catholic Church , centered in Rome and dominant in the West, and the Orthodox Church , centered in Constantinople , capital of the Byzantine Empire. Relations between the major powers in Western society: the nobility, monarchy and clergy, also sometimes produced conflict. For example, the Investiture Controversy was one of the most significant conflicts between Church and state in medieval Europe. A series of Popes challenged the authority of monarchies over control of appointments, or investitures , of church officials.
Philip IV of France responded by sending an army to arrest the Pope. Boniface fled for his life and died shortly thereafter. The Papacy had its court at Avignon from to  This arose from the conflict between the Italian Papacy and the French crown. Theologian Roger Olson says the church reached its nadir at this time when there were three different men claiming to be the rightful Pope. This fragmentation heralded the withering away of the papacy as a governing institution operating on a universal scale. The history of the Inquisition divides into two major parts: "its creation by the medieval papacy in the early thirteenth century, and its transformation between and into permanent secular governmental bureaucracies: the Spanish, Portuguese, and Roman Inquisitions Historian Helen Rawlings says, "the Spanish Inquisition was different [from earlier inquisitions] in one fundamental respect: it was responsible to the crown rather than the Pope and was used to consolidate state interest.
In October , a papal bull conceded control to the crown. The Portuguese inquisition was also fully controlled by the crown which established a government board, known as the General Council, to oversee it. The Grand Inquisitor, who was chosen by the king, was always a member of the royal family. The first statute of Limpieza de sangre purity of blood appeared in Toledo in and was later adopted in Portugal as well. Initially, these statutes were condemned by the Church, but in , the highly corrupt Pope Alexander VI approved a 'blood purity' statute for one of the religious orders.
Historian T. Mayer writes that "the Roman Inquisition operated to serve the papacy's long standing political aims in Naples, Venice and Florence. The Roman Inquisition is probably best known for its condemnation of the difficult and cantankerous Galileo which was more about "bringing Florence to heel" than about heresy. In the Middle Ages, the Church and the worldly authorities were closely related.
Martin Luther separated the religious and the worldly realms in principle doctrine of the two kingdoms. Luther's doctrine of the priesthood of all believers upgraded the role of laymen in the church considerably. The members of a congregation had the right to elect a minister and, if necessary, to vote for his dismissal Treatise On the right and authority of a Christian assembly or congregation to judge all doctrines and to call, install and dismiss teachers, as testified in Scripture ; This system was taken over by the other Reformed churches. Politically, John Calvin favoured a mixture of aristocracy and democracy. He appreciated the advantages of democracy: "It is an invaluable gift, if God allows a people to freely elect its own authorities and overlords.
To further protect the rights of ordinary people, Calvin suggested separating political powers in a system of checks and balances separation of powers. Declaration of Independence. Thus early Protestants resisted political absolutism and paved the way for the rise of modern democracy. Hugo Grotius was able to teach his natural-law theory and a relatively liberal interpretation of the Bible.
Consistent with Calvin's political ideas, Protestants created both the English and the American democracies. Australia, New Zealand, and India. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the British variety of modern-time democracy, constitutional monarchy , was taken over by Protestant-formed Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands as well as the Catholic countries Belgium and Spain. Classics scholar Kyle Harper says. The legacy of Christianity lies in the dissolution of an ancient system where social and political status, power, and the transmission of social inequality to the next generation scripted the terms of sexual morality. Both the ancient Greeks and the Romans cared and wrote about sexual morality within categories of good and bad, pure and defiled, and ideal and transgression.
Roman literature indicates the Romans were aware of these dualities. Shame was a profoundly social concept that was, in ancient Rome, always mediated by gender and status. This was a transformation in the deep logic of sexual morality. Early Church Fathers advocated against adultery, polygamy, homosexuality, pederasty, bestiality, prostitution, and incest while advocating for the sanctity of the marriage bed. Paul, whose views became dominant in early Christianity, made the body into a consecrated space, a point of mediation between the individual and the divine. Paul's over-riding sense that gender—rather than status or power or wealth or position—was the prime determinant in the propriety of the sex act was momentous.
By boiling the sex act down to the most basic constituents of male and female, Paul was able to describe the sexual culture surrounding him in transformative terms. Christian sexual ideology is inextricable from its concept of freewill. The church's acute concern with volition places Christian philosophy in the liveliest currents of imperial Greco-Roman philosophy [where] orthodox Christians offered a radically distinctive version of it. Christianity "preached a liberating message of freedom.
It was a revolution in the rules of behavior, but also in the very image of the human being as a sexual being, free, frail and awesomely responsible for one's own self to God alone. It was a revolution in the nature of society's claims on the moral agent There are risks in over-estimating the change in old patterns Christianity was able to begin bringing about; but there are risks, too, in underestimating Christianization as a watershed. The teachings of the Church have also been used to "establish[ From the beginning of the thirteenth century, the Church formally recognized marriage between a freely consenting, baptized man and woman as a sacrament —an outward sign communicating a special gift of God's love.
The Council of Florence in gave this definition, following earlier Church statements in , and declared that sexual union was a special participation in the union of Christ in the Church. Further, marriage was said to be for the "relief of concupiscence "  as well as any spiritual purpose. This unanimity was broken at the Lambeth Conference , the quadrennial meeting of the worldwide Anglican Communion—creating divisions in that denomination.
Catholicism equates premarital sex with fornication and ties it with breaking the sixth commandment " Thou shalt not commit adultery " in its Catechism. The process begun at the time of the Hardwicke Act continued throughout the s, with stigma beginning to attach to illegitimacy. Scriptures in the New Testament dealing with sexuality are extensive. Subjects include: the Apostolic Decree Acts 15 , sexual immorality, divine love 1 Corinthians 13 , mutual self-giving 1 Corinthians 7 , bodily membership between Christ and between husband and wife 1 Corinthians —20 and honor versus dishonor of adultery Hebrews Social structures before and at the dawn of Christianity in the Roman Empire held that women were inferior to men intellectually and physically and were "naturally dependent".
Female infanticide and abortion were practiced by all classes. It was not rare for pagan women to be married before the age of puberty and then forced to consummate the marriage with her often much older husband. Husbands could divorce their wives at any time simply by telling the wife to leave; wives did not have a similar ability to divorce their husbands. Early Church Fathers advocated against polygamy, abortion, infanticide, child abuse, homosexuality, transvestism, and incest. For example, Church teaching heavily influenced the legal concept of marriage. According to historian Shulamith Shahar , "[s]ome historians hold that the Church played a considerable part in fostering the inferior status of women in medieval society in general" by providing a "moral justification" for male superiority and by accepting practices such as wife-beating.
It was not the Church which induced husbands to beat their wives, but it not only accepted this custom after the event, if it was not carried to excess, but, by proclaiming the superiority of man, also supplied its moral justification. Although these teachings emboldened secular authorities to give women fewer rights than men, they also helped form the concept of chivalry.
Christian culture puts notable emphasis on the family ,  and according to the work of scholars Max Weber , Alan Macfarlane , Steven Ozment , Jack Goody and Peter Laslett , the huge transformation that led to modern marriage in Western democracies was "fueled by the religio-cultural value system provided by elements of Judaism , early Christianity , Roman Catholic canon law and the Protestant Reformation ". Most Christian denominations practice infant baptism  to enter children into the faith. Some form of confirmation ritual occurs when the child has reached the age of reason and voluntarily accepts the religion. Ritual circumcision is used to mark Coptic Christian  and Ethiopian Orthodox Christian  infant males as belonging to the faith. During the early period of capitalism , the rise of a large, commercial middle class, mainly in the Protestant countries of Holland and England , brought about a new family ideology centred around the upbringing of children.
Puritanism stressed the importance of individual salvation and concern for the spiritual welfare of children. It became widely recognized that children possess rights on their own behalf. This included the rights of poor children to sustenance, membership in a community, education, and job training. The Poor Relief Acts in Elizabethan England put responsibility on each Parish to care for all the poor children in the area. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints puts notable emphasis on the family , and the distinctive concept of a united family which lives and progresses forever is at the core of Latter-day Saint doctrine. All sexual activity outside of marriage is considered a serious sin.
All homosexual activity is considered sinful and same-sex marriages are not performed or supported by the LDS Church. Latter-day Saint fathers who hold the priesthood typically name and bless their children shortly after birth to formally give the child a name and generate a church record for them. Mormons tend to be very family-oriented and have strong connections across generations and with extended family, reflective of their belief that families can be sealed together beyond death. The implication is that other institutional forms, including the church, might disappear, but the family will endure. Four out of five Mormons believe that being a good parent is one of the most important goals in life, and roughly three out of four Mormons put having a successful marriage in this category.
A Pew Center study about Religion and Living arrangements around the world in , found that Christians around the world live in somewhat smaller households, on average, than non-Christians 4. The Church initially accepted slavery as part of the Greco-Roman social fabric of society, campaigning primarily for humane treatment of slaves but also admonishing slaves to behave appropriately towards their masters. Early Christians purchased slaves in the markets simply to set them free. Later, in the seventh century, the Franks In the s, Thomas Aquinas declared slavery a sin. When the African slave trade began in the s, it was condemned numerous times by the papacy.
During the early medieval period, Christians tolerated enslavement of non-Christians. By the end of the Medieval period, enslavement of Christians had been mitigated somewhat with the spread of serfdom within Europe, though outright slavery existed in European colonies in other parts of the world. Several popes issued papal bulls condemning mistreatment of enslaved Native Americans; these were largely ignored. In his bull In supremo apostolatus , Pope Gregory XVI condemned all forms of slavery; nevertheless some American bishops continued to support slavery for several decades.
Gregory continued to discuss the involvement of Christians for and against slavery through the ages: . In the process of time, the fog of pagan superstition being more completely dissipated and the manners of barbarous people having been softened, thanks to Faith operating by Charity, it at last comes about that, since several centuries, there are no more slaves in the greater number of Christian nations. But — We say with profound sorrow — there were to be found afterwards among the Faithful men who, shamefully blinded by the desire of sordid gain, in lonely and distant countries, did not hesitate to reduce to slavery Indians, negroes and other wretched peoples, or else, by instituting or developing the trade in those who had been made slaves by others, to favour their unworthy practice.
Certainly many Roman Pontiffs of glorious memory, Our Predecessors, did not fail, according to the duties of their charge, to blame severely this way of acting as dangerous for the spiritual welfare of those engaged in the traffic and a shame to the Christian name; they foresaw that as a result of this, the infidel peoples would be more and more strengthened in their hatred of the true Religion. It was women, primarily Amerindian Christian converts who became the primary supporters of the Latin American Church. This began within 20 years of the discovery of the New World by Europeans in — in December , Antonio de Montesinos , a Dominican friar, openly rebuked the Spanish rulers of Hispaniola for their "cruelty and tyranny" in dealing with the American natives.
The issue resulted in a crisis of conscience in 16th-century Spain. Slavery and human sacrifice were both part of Latin American culture before the Europeans arrived. Indian slavery was first abolished by Pope Paul III in the bull Sublimis Deus which confirmed that "their souls were as immortal as those of Europeans", that Indians were to be regarded as fully human, and they should neither be robbed nor turned into slaves. European colonies were mainly run by military and royally-appointed administrators, who seldom stopped to consider church teachings when forming policy or enforcing their rule. Even after independence , institutionalized prejudice and injustice toward indigenous people continued well into the twentieth century.
This has led to the formation of a number of movements to reassert indigenous peoples' civil rights and culture in modern nation-states. A catastrophe was wrought upon the Amerindians by contact with Europeans. Old World diseases like smallpox , measles , malaria and many others spread through Indian populations. Explorers and colonists did not enter an empty land but rather an emptied one". Slavery and the slave trade were part of African societies and states which supplied the Arab world with slaves before the arrival of the Europeans. By the close of the 19th century, European powers had managed to gain control of most of the African interior.
The influence of the Church on Western letters and learning has been formidable. The ancient texts of the Bible have deeply influenced Western art, literature and culture. For centuries following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, small monastic communities were practically the only outposts of literacy in Western Europe. In time, the Cathedral schools developed into Europe's earliest universities and the church has established thousands of primary, secondary and tertiary institutions throughout the world in the centuries since. The Church and clergymen have also sought at different times to censor texts and scholars. Thus different schools of opinion exist as to the role and influence of the Church in relation to western letters and learning.
One view, first propounded by Enlightenment philosophers , asserts that the Church's doctrines are entirely superstitious and have hindered the progress of civilization. Communist states have made similar arguments in their education in order to inculcate a negative view of Catholicism and religion in general in their citizens. The most famous incidents cited by such critics are the Church's condemnations of the teachings of Copernicus , Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler.
In opposition to this view, some historians of science, including non-Catholics such as J. Heilbron ,  A. Crombie , David Lindberg ,  Edward Grant , historian of science Thomas Goldstein,  and Ted Davis, have argued that the Church had a significant, positive influence on the development of Western civilization. They hold that, not only did monks save and cultivate the remnants of ancient civilization during the barbarian invasions, but that the Church promoted learning and science through its sponsorship of many universities which, under its leadership, grew rapidly in Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries.
Thomas Aquinas , the Church's "model theologian", argued that reason is in harmony with faith, and that reason can contribute to a deeper understanding of revelation, and so encouraged intellectual development. Even more numerous are Catholic laity involved in science: Henri Becquerel who discovered radioactivity ; Galvani , Volta , Ampere , Marconi , pioneers in electricity and telecommunications ; Lavoisier , "father of modern chemistry "; Vesalius , founder of modern human anatomy ; and Cauchy , one of the mathematicians who laid the rigorous foundations of calculus.
Many well-known historical figures who influenced Western science considered themselves Christian such as Copernicus ,  Galileo ,  Kepler ,  Newton  and Boyle. According to Years of Nobel Prize , a review of Nobel prizes awarded between and , Christianity began as a Jewish sect in the 1st century AD, and from the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth and his early followers. Jesus learned the texts of the Hebrew Bible and became an influential wandering preacher. Accounts of his life and teachings appear in the New Testament of the Bible, one of the bedrock texts of Western Civilization.
Many translations of the Bible exist, including the King James Bible , which is one of the most admired texts in English literature. The poetic Psalms and other passages of the Hebrew Bible have also been deeply influential in Western Literature and thought. Accounts of the actions of Jesus' early followers are contained within the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles written between the early Christian communities — in particular the Pauline epistles which are among the earliest extant Christian documents and foundational texts of Christian theology.
After the death of Jesus, the new sect grew to be the dominant religion of the Roman Empire and the long tradition of Christian scholarship began. His writings were very influential in the development of Western Christianity and he developed the concept of the Church as a spiritual City of God in a book of the same name , distinct from the material Earthly City. Augustine profoundly influenced the coming medieval worldview. The writings of Classical antiquity never ceased to be cultivated in Byzantium. Therefore, Byzantine science was in every period closely connected with ancient philosophy , and metaphysics. Though scholarship lagged during the dark years following the Arab conquests, during the so-called Byzantine Renaissance at the end of the first millennium Byzantine scholars re-asserted themselves becoming experts in the scientific developments of the Arabs and Persians, particularly in astronomy and mathematics.
Greek fire. Although at various times the Byzantines made magnificent achievements in the application of the sciences notably in the construction of the Hagia Sophia , and although they preserved much of the ancient knowledge of science and geometry, after the 6th century Byzantine scholars made few novel contributions to science in terms of developing new theories or extending the ideas of classical authors.
In the final century of the Empire, Byzantine grammarians were those principally responsible for carrying, in person and in writing, ancient Greek grammatical and literary studies to early Renaissance Italy. In the field of law, Justinian I 's reforms had a clear effect on the evolution of jurisprudence , and Leo III's Ecloga influenced the formation of legal institutions in the Slavic world. In the 10th century, Leo VI the Wise achieved the complete codification of the whole of Byzantine law in Greek, which became the foundation of all subsequent Byzantine law, generating interest to the present day.
During the period of European history often called the Dark Ages which followed the collapse of the Western Roman Empire , Church scholars and missionaries played a vital role in preserving knowledge of Classical Learning. While the Roman Empire and Christian religion survived in an increasingly Hellenised form in the Byzantine Empire centred at Constantinople in the East, Western civilisation suffered a collapse of literacy and organisation following the fall of Rome in AD. Monks sought refuge at the far fringes of the known world: like Cornwall, Ireland, or the Hebrides. Disciplined Christian scholarship carried on in isolated outposts like Skellig Michael in Ireland, where literate monks became some of the last preservers in Western Europe of the poetic and philosophical works of Western antiquity.
These scribes then served as conduits through which the Greco-Roman and Judeo-Christian cultures were transmitted to the tribes of Europe, newly settled amid the rubble and ruined vineyards of the civilization they had overwhelmed. Without this Service of the Scribes, everything that happened subsequently would be unthinkable. Without the Mission of the Irish Monks , who single-handedly re-founded European civilization throughout the continent in the bays and valleys of their exile, the world that came after them would have been an entirely different one-a world without books.
And our own world would never have come to be. According to art historian Kenneth Clark , for some five centuries after the fall of Rome, virtually all men of intellect joined the Church and practically nobody in western Europe outside of monastic settlements had the ability to read or write. While church scholars at different times also destroyed classical texts they felt were contrary to the Christian message, it was they, virtually alone in Western Europe, who preserved texts from the old society. As Western Europe became more orderly again, the Church remained a driving force in education, setting up Cathedral schools beginning in the Early Middle Ages as centers of education, which became medieval universities , the springboard of many of Western Europe's later achievements.
The Catholic Cistercian order used its own numbering system , which could express numbers from 0 to in a single sign. The Cistercians made major contributions to culture and technology in medieval Europe: Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture ;  and the Cistercians were the main force of technological diffusion in fields such as agriculture and hydraulic engineering. While the promulgation of the Index has been described by some as the "turning-point in the freedom of enquiry" in the Catholic world,  the actual effects of the Index were minimal and it was largely ignored. John Hedley Brooke explains:. It is important not to exaggerate the oppressive effects of Index and Inquisition.
The Counter-Reformation did not prevent Italian scholars from making original contributions in classical scholarship, history, law, literary criticism, logic, mathematics, medicine, philology, and rhetoric. Nor were they isolated by the Index from European scholarship. Prohibited books entered private libraries where they would be consulted by those prepared to break the rules in the interests of learning. One can lose a sense of perspective if the condemnation of Galileo is taken to epitomize the attitude of Catholic authorities toward the natural sciences. Relatively few scientific works were placed on the Index. The attempt to put a stop to the moving earth stands out because it proved so tragic an aberration — a personal tragedy for Galileo and, in the long run, a tragedy for the Church, which overreached itself in securing a territory that would prove impossible to hold.
The last edition of the Index appeared in and publication of the list ceased The avowed aim of the list was to protect the faith and morals of the faithful by preventing the reading of immoral books or works containing theological errors. Books thought to contain such errors included some scientific works by leading astronomers such as Johannes Kepler 's Epitome astronomiae Copernicianae , which was on the Index from to The various editions of the Index also contained the rules of the Church relating to the reading, selling and pre-emptive censorship of books.
Canon law still recommends that works concerning sacred Scripture, theology, canon law, church history, and any writings which specially concern religion or good morals, be submitted to the judgement of the local Ordinary. Some of the scientific works that were on early editions of the Index e. Giordano Bruno , whose works were on the Index, now has a monument in Rome, erected over the Church's objections at the place where he was burned alive at the stake for heresy. According to the Merton Thesis there was a positive correlation between the rise of puritanism and protestant pietism on the one hand and early experimental science on the other.
Merton focused on English Puritanism and German Pietism as having been responsible for the development of the scientific revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries. Merton explained that the connection between religious affiliation and interest in science was the result of a significant synergy between the ascetic Protestant values and those of modern science. Historically, the Catholic Church has been a major a sponsor of astronomy, not least due to the astronomical basis of the calendar by which holy days and Easter are determined. Nevertheless, the most famous case of a scientist being tried for heresy arose in this field of science: the trial of Galileo. The Church's interest in astronomy began with purely practical concerns, when in the 16th century Pope Gregory XIII required astronomers to correct for the fact that the Julian calendar had fallen out of sync with the sky.
Since the Spring equinox was tied to the celebration of Easter, the Church considered that this steady movement in the date of the equinox was undesirable. The resulting Gregorian calendar is the internationally accepted civil calendar used throughout the world today and is an important contribution of the Catholic Church to Western Civilisation. The famous astronomers Nicholas Copernicus , who put the sun at the centre of the heavens in , and Galileo Galilei , who experimented with the new technology of the telescope and, with its aid declared his belief that Copernicus was correct, were both practising Catholics — indeed Copernicus was a Catholic clergyman.
Yet the church establishment at that time held to theories devised in pre-Christian Greece by Ptolemy and Aristotle , which said that the sky revolved around the earth. When Galileo began to assert that the earth in fact revolved around the sun, he therefore found himself challenging the Church establishment at a time where the Church hierarchy also held temporal power and was engaged in the ongoing political challenge of the rise of Protestantism.
After discussions with Pope Urban VIII a man who had written admiringly of Galileo before taking papal office , Galileo believed he could avoid censure by presenting his arguments in dialogue form, but the Pope took offence when he discovered that some of his own words were being spoken by a character in the book who was a simpleton and Galileo was called for a trial before the Inquisition. In this most famous example cited by critics of the Catholic Church's "posture towards science", Galileo Galilei was denounced in for his work on the heliocentric model of the solar system, previously proposed by the Polish clergyman and intellectual Nicolaus Copernicus.
Copernicus's work had been suppressed de facto by the Church, but Catholic authorities were generally tolerant of discussion of the hypothesis as long as it was portrayed only as a useful mathematical fiction, and not descriptive of reality. Galileo, by contrast, argued from his unprecedented observations of the solar system that the heliocentric system was not merely an abstract model for calculating planetary motions, but actually corresponded to physical reality — that is, he insisted the planets really do orbit the Sun. After years of telescopic observation, consultations with the Popes, and verbal and written discussions with astronomers and clerics, a trial was convened by the Tribunal of the Roman and Universal Inquisition.
Galileo was found "vehemently suspect of heresy" not "guilty of heresy", as is frequently misreported , placed under house arrest , and all of his works, including any future writings, were banned. According to Polish-British historian of science Jacob Bronowski : . The effect of the trial and imprisonment was to put a total stop to the scientific tradition in the Mediterranean. From now on the Scientific Revolution moved to Northern Europe. Pope John Paul II , on 31 October , publicly expressed regret for the actions of those Catholics who badly treated Galileo in that trial.
Since the publication of Charles Darwin 's On the Origin of Species in , the position of the Catholic Church on the theory of evolution has slowly been refined. For about years, there was no authoritative pronouncement on the subject, though many hostile comments were made by local church figures. In contrast with many Protestant objections, Catholic issues with evolutionary theory have had little to do with maintaining the literalism of the account in the Book of Genesis , and have always been concerned with the question of how man came to have a soul.
Modern Creationism has had little Catholic support. In the s, the Church's position was one of neutrality; by the late 20th century its position evolved to one of general acceptance in recent years. However, the church insists that the human soul was immediately infused by God, and the reality of a single ancestor commonly called monogenism for the human race. Today [update] , the Church's official position is a fairly non-specific example of theistic evolution ,   stating that faith and scientific findings regarding human evolution are not in conflict, though humans are regarded as a special creation , and that the existence of God is required to explain both monogenism and the spiritual component of human origins.
No infallible declarations by the Pope or an Ecumenical Council have been made. The Catholic Church's official position is fairly non-specific, stating only that faith and the origin of man's material body "from pre-existing living matter" are not in conflict, and that the existence of God is required to explain the spiritual component of man's origin. Recently, the Church has been criticized for its teaching that embryonic stem cell research is a form of experimentation on human beings , and results in the killing of a human person.
Much criticism of this position has been on the grounds that the doctrine hinders scientific research; even some conservatives, taking a utilitarian position, have pointed out that most embryos from which stem cells are harvested are "leftover" from in vitro fertilization , and would soon be discarded whether used for such research or not. The Church, by contrast, has consistently upheld its ideal of the dignity of each individual human life, and argues that it is as wrong to destroy an embryo as it would be to kill an adult human being; and that therefore advances in medicine can and must come without the destruction of human embryos, for example by using adult or umbilical stem cells in place of embryonic stem cells.
Many Eastern Orthodox states in Eastern Europe, as well as to some degree the Muslim states of the eastern Mediterranean , preserved many aspects of the empire's culture and art for centuries afterward. A number of states contemporary with the Byzantine Empire were culturally influenced by it, without actually being part of it the " Byzantine commonwealth ". These included Bulgaria , Serbia , and the Rus , as well as some non-Orthodox states like the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Sicily , which had close ties to the Byzantine Empire despite being in other respects part of western European culture.
Certain artistic traditions that originated in the Byzantine Empire, particularly in regard to icon painting and church architecture, are maintained in Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Russia and other Eastern Orthodox countries to the present day. Several historians credit the Catholic Church for what they consider to be the brilliance and magnificence of Western art. Important contributions include its cultivation and patronage of individual artists, as well as development of the Romanesque , Gothic and Renaissance styles of art and architecture. British art historian Kenneth Clark wrote that Western Europe's first "great age of civilization" was ready to begin around the year From , he wrote, monumental abbeys and cathedrals were constructed and decorated with sculptures, hangings, mosaics and works belonging to one of the greatest epochs of art, providing stark contrast to the monotonous and cramped conditions of ordinary living during the period.
The Late Middle Ages produced ever more extravagant art and architecture, but also the virtuous simplicity of those such as St Francis of Assisi expressed in the Canticle of the Sun and the epic poetry of Dante 's Divine Comedy. Denis is considered an influential early patron of Gothic architecture. He believed that love of beauty brought people closer to God: "The dull mind rises to truth through that which is material". Clarke calls this "the intellectual background of all the sublime works of art of the next century and in fact has remained the basis of our belief of the value of art until today".
Renaissance artists such as Raphael , Michelangelo , Leonardo da Vinci , Bernini , Botticelli , Fra Angelico , Tintoretto , Caravaggio , and Titian , were among a multitude of innovative virtuosos sponsored by the Church. Referring to a "great outburst of creative energy such as took place in Rome between and ", Kenneth Clarke wrote:. Guercino spent much of his mornings in prayer; Bernini frequently went into retreats and practised the Spiritual Exercises of Saint Ignatius ; Rubens attended Mass every morning before beginning work.
The exception was Caravaggio , who was like the hero of a modern play, except that he happened to paint very well. This conformism was not based on fear of the Inquisition, but on the perfectly simple belief that the faith which had inspired the great saints of the preceding generation was something by which a man should regulate his life. This led directly to the emergence and development of European classical music, and its many derivatives. The Baroque style, which encompassed music, art, and architecture, was particularly encouraged by the post-Reformation Catholic Church as such forms offered a means of religious expression that was stirring and emotional, intended to stimulate religious fervor.
Similarly, the list of Catholic authors and literary works is vast. With a literary tradition spanning two millennia, the Bible and Papal Encyclicals have been constants of the Catholic canon but countless other historical works may be listed as noteworthy in terms of their influence on Western society. From late Antiquity, St Augustine 's book Confessions , which outlines his sinful youth and conversion to Christianity, is widely considered to be the first autobiography ever written in the canon of Western Literature.
It presents the reasoning for almost all points of Christian theology in the West. The epic poetry of the Italian Dante and his Divine Comedy of the late Middle Ages is also considered immensely influential. The English statesman and philosopher, Thomas More , wrote the seminal work Utopia in St Ignatius Loyola , a key figure in the Catholic counter-reformation, is the author of an influential book of meditations known as the Spiritual Exercises. The scholastics ' intellectual systems by Aquinas, called the Summa Theologiae , influenced the writings of Dante , and in turn, Dante's creation and sacramental theology has contributed to a Catholic imagination influencing writers such as J.
Tolkien  and William Shakespeare. In Catholicism , " Doctor of the Church " is a name is given to a saint from whose writings the whole Church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom "eminent learning" and "great sanctity" have been attributed by a proclamation of a pope or of an ecumenical council. This honour is given rarely, and only after canonization. The arts have been strongly inspired by Protestant beliefs. The notion of Christian finance refers to banking and financial activities which came into existence several centuries ago.
Christian Churches , such as the Catholic Church and Reformed Church, traditionally prohibit usury as a sin against the eighth commandment. The activities of the Knights Templar 12th century , Mounts of Piety appeared in or the Apostolic Chamber attached directly to the Vatican, may have given rise to operations of a banking nature or a financial nature issuance of securities, investments is proved. Francisco de Vitoria , a disciple of Thomas Aquinas and a Catholic thinker who studied the issue regarding the human rights of colonized natives, is recognized by the United Nations as a father of international law, and now also by historians of economics and democracy as a leading light for the West's democracy and rapid economic development.
Joseph Schumpeter , an economist of the twentieth century, referring to the Scholastics , wrote, "it is they who come nearer than does any other group to having been the 'founders' of scientific economics. Historian Paul Legutko of Stanford University said the Catholic Church is "at the center of the development of the values, ideas, science, laws, and institutions which constitute what we call Western civilization. Catholic banking families includes House of Medici ,  Welser family , Fugger family ,  and Simonetti family. The rise of Protestantism in the 16th century contributed to the development of banking in Northern Europe. One school of thought attributes Calvinism with setting the stage for the later development of capitalism in northern Europe.
The Protestant work ethic , the Calvinist work ethic ,  or the Puritan work ethic  is a work ethic concept in theology , sociology , economics and history which emphasizes that hard work, discipline, and frugality  are a result of a person's subscription to the values espoused by the Protestant faith , particularly Calvinism. In opposition to Weber, historians such as Fernand Braudel and Hugh Trevor-Roper assert that the Protestant work ethic did not create capitalism and that capitalism developed in pre-Reformation Catholic communities. Just as priests and caring professionals are deemed to have a vocation or "calling" from God for their work, according to the Protestant work ethic the lowly workman also has a noble vocation which he can fulfil through dedication to his work.
The Protestant concept of God and man allows believers to use all their God-given faculties, including the power of reason. That means that they are allowed to explore God's creation and, according to Genesis , make use of it in a responsible and sustainable way. Thus a cultural climate was created that greatly enhanced the development of the humanities and the sciences. Industry, frugality, calling, discipline, and a strong sense of responsibility are at the heart of their moral code. Therefore, craftsmen, industrialists, and other businessmen were able to reinvest the greater part of their profits in the most efficient machinery and the most modern production methods that were based on progress in the sciences and technology. As a result, productivity grew, which led to increased profits and enabled employers to pay higher wages.
In this way, the economy, the sciences, and technology reinforced each other. The chance to participate in the economic success of technological inventions was a strong incentive to both inventors and investors. This idea is also known as the "Protestant ethic thesis ". Episcopalians and Presbyterians tend to be considerably wealthier  and better educated having more graduate and post-graduate degrees per capita than most other religious groups in America ,  and are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business,  law and politics, especially the Republican Party.
The Catholic Church has contributed to society through its social doctrine which has guided leaders to promote social justice and providing care to the sick and poor. In orations such as his Sermon on the Mount and stories such as The Good Samaritan , Jesus called on followers to worship God, act without violence or prejudice and care for the sick, hungry and poor. Such teachings are the foundation of Catholic Church involvement in social justice , hospitals and health care. Historians record that, prior to Christianity, the ancient world left little trace of any organized charitable effort.
Albert Jonsen, University of Washington historian of medicine, says "the second great sweep of medical history begins at the end of the fourth century, with the founding of the first Christian hospital at Caesarea in Cappadocia, and concludes at the end of the fourteenth century, with medicine well ensconced in the universities and in the public life of the emerging nations of Europe. Basil was personally involved and invested in the projects and process giving all of his personal wealth to fund the ministries. Basil himself would put on an apron and work in the soup kitchen. These ministries were given freely regardless of religious affiliation.
Basil refused to make any discrimination when it came to people who needed help saying that "the digestive systems of the Jew and the Christian are indistinguishable. Charity has now become a universal practice. The Catholic Church established a hospital system in Medieval Europe that was different from the merely reciprocal hospitality of the Greeks and family-based obligations of the Romans. These hospitals were established to cater to "particular social groups marginalized by poverty, sickness, and age", according to historian of hospitals, Guenter Risse. The Fugger Family from Augsburg, Germany who were bankers, years ago founded one of the first social housing projects in the world, which exists till today.
The Industrial Revolution brought many concerns about the deteriorating working and living conditions of urban workers. Institutional arrangements determine the opportunities and scope for action of organizations. Conversely, individuals may mobilize and change the landscape of organizations, and ultimately even contribute to significant changes in institutional arrangements. Since the outcome of the integration process results from the interaction of two parties that takes place at different levels, the outcome cannot be expected to be uniform. On the one hand, studies that compare the integration process of different immigrant groups in the same institutional and policy context show that immigrant groups follow different patterns of integration.
On the other hand, the integration process of immigrants of the same origin in different national contexts also leads to very diverse patterns. Integration processes, for both individuals and groups, are long-term by nature. At the group level this means that the litmus test for integration, and for the success or failure of policies in this field, is the position of the second generation. However, political processes in democratic societies demand policies that bear fruit within much shorter terms, frequently measured in the brief span between elections.
Unrealistic promises and demands derived from this "democratic impatience" often lead to a backlash against a policy's failings, real or perceived, in public or political circles. In view of the peril of this backlash, and because global developments are expected to lead to the growth of immigrant populations worldwide, there is a need for comprehensive integration policies. While many schools of thought exist, and policies will vary from country to country, some key elements that appear in successful integration policies are those that:.
Offer a vision for both immigrants and receiving societies. Explicit policies offer a framework for thinking about common goals of guaranteeing viable and liveable communities, and can provide guidelines and instruments for all parties concerned about how to contribute. Coordinate with immigration policies. This connection is critically important in light of the tendency of many governments to handle international migration within a framework based on traditional notions of nation-states. Within this framework, the world is divided into separate political communities with distinct national citizens and territories.
Migration across political borders is considered an anomaly. As a consequence, migration policies have been primarily defensive and control-centered instead of proactive. Similarly, integration policies for immigrants have been reactive, if not absent. These two reinforce each other, because the lack of a consistent and transparent immigration policy is an impediment to effective integration policies.
In many cases, poor integration policy has contributed to negative perceptions of immigrants, which in turn has led to the reinforcement of defensive immigration policies. A key element of such a policy is transparency in the admission of immigrants, particularly with regard to what is expected from them and what they can expect. Any expectation that immigrants will receive long-term residence should be accompanied by efforts to provide them with an adequate legal position, tools to function sucessfully in society, and access to public facilities on an equal footing with nationals. Long periods of uncertainty about future residence and in the case of asylum seekers, dependency on government largesse should be avoided, both for their negative implications for the migrants concerned, and the negative image and endangered legitimacy of admissions policies.
Promote integration policies that acknowledge diversity. At the individual level, an adult immigrant may adapt significantly in terms of his or her knowledge over the long-term integration process. However, feelings, preferences, and evaluations of good and evil are fairly persistent within a lifetime. As a consequence, much more attention should be given to the question of how to frame immigration and integration policies politically in order to recognize and accept a diversity of attitudes. Provide for national realities. While a view beyond the nation-state is important, it is also obvious that integration policies are necessarily shaped by the national context.
In the socio-economic sphere, for example, integration mechanisms in societies with a strong liberal market orientation and limited welfare and social facilities differ from those in welfare states where a greater part of the national income is redistributed. In addition, in the cultural and religious domain, historical peculiarities of institutional arrangements create significant differences in the feasibility of policies. As a consequence, the scope, actors, and instruments of policy action differ. National policies, and by implication also regional integration policies, such as those for the European Union, can strive to set general frameworks, rules, and instruments that facilitate local actors. Understand the importance of urban areas. Cities, so often the port-of-entry for immigrant populations, face special challenges and specific responsibilities that differ from those of national authorities see article in this issue by Brian Ray.
It is at this local level of municipalities and cities that tensions between national and local governments become visible and the need for coordination between immigration and integration policies becomes urgent. Large cities in particular are confronted with rapid changes in their population. Migrants, often "steered" to the cities by government policy, have vastly varied cultures, religions, and lifestyles. Their integration into the social embroidery of the city is not a natural process. Social segregation, social exclusion, and marginalization of certain of these immigrant groups can threaten the social cohesion in these cities. Cities therefore face a special challenge and a specific responsibility, different from that of the national authorities.
At the same time, city neighborhoods offer special opportunities. These definitions entail varying levels of formality and organizational complexity. According to Wolfgang Streeck and Kathleen Thelen , institutions are in the most general sense "building blocks of social order: they represent socially sanctioned, that is, collectively enforced expectations with respect to the behavior of specific categories of actors or to the performance of certain activities.
Typically they involve mutually related rights and obligations for actors. Political scientists have sometimes defined institutions in more formal ways where third parties must reliably and predictably enforce the rules governing the transactions of first and second parties. One prominent Rational Choice Institutionalist definition of institutions is provided by Jack Knight who defines institutions as entailing "a set of rules that structure social interactions in particular ways" and that "knowledge of these rules must be shared by the members of the relevant community or society.
Douglass North defines institutions as "rules of the game in a society"  and "humanly devised constraints that structure political, economic and social interactions. Robert Keohane defined institutions as "persistent and connected sets of rules formal or informal that prescribe behavioral roles, constrain activity, and shape expectations. Avner Greif and David Laitin define institutions "as a system of human-made, nonphysical elements — norms, beliefs, organizations, and rules — exogenous to each individual whose behavior it influences that generates behavioral regularities.
Rules are behavioral instructions that facilitate individuals with the cognitive task of choosing behavior by defining the situation and coordinating behavior. All definitions of institutions generally entail that there is a level of persistence and continuity. An informal institution tends to have socially shared rules, which are unwritten and yet are often known by all inhabitants of a certain country, as such they are often referred to as being an inherent part of the culture of a given country. Informal practices are often referred to as "cultural", for example clientelism or corruption is sometimes stated as a part of the political culture in a certain place, but an informal institution itself is not cultural, it may be shaped by culture or behaviour of a given political landscape, but they should be looked at in the same way as formal institutions to understand their role in a given country.
The relationship between formal and informal institutions is often closely aligned and informal institutions step in to prop up inefficient institutions. However, because they do not have a centre, which directs and coordinates their actions, changing informal institutions is a slow and lengthy process. While institutions tend to appear to people in society as part of the natural, unchanging landscape of their lives, study of institutions by the social sciences tends to reveal the nature of institutions as social constructions , artifacts of a particular time, culture and society, produced by collective human choice, though not directly by individual intention.
Sociology traditionally analyzed social institutions in terms of interlocking social roles and expectations. Social institutions created and were composed of groups of roles, or expected behaviors. The social function of the institution was executed by the fulfillment of roles. The relationship of the institutions to human nature is a foundational question for the social sciences.
Institutions can be seen as "naturally" arising from, and conforming to, human nature—a fundamentally conservative view—or institutions can be seen as artificial, almost accidental, and in need of architectural redesign, informed by expert social analysis, to better serve human needs—a fundamentally progressive view. Adam Smith anchored his economics in the supposed human "propensity to truck, barter and exchange".
Modern feminists have criticized traditional marriage and other institutions as element of an oppressive and obsolete patriarchy. The Marxist view—which sees human nature as historically 'evolving' towards voluntary social cooperation, shared by some anarchists —is that supra-individual institutions such as the market and the state are incompatible with the individual liberty of a truly free society. Economics, in recent years, has used game theory to study institutions from two perspectives. Firstly, how do institutions survive and evolve? In this perspective, institutions arise from Nash equilibria of games. For example, whenever people pass each other in a corridor or thoroughfare, there is a need for customs, which avoid collisions.
Such a custom might call for each party to keep to their own right or left—such a choice is arbitrary, it is only necessary that the choice be uniform and consistent. Such customs may be supposed to be the origin of rules, such as the rule, adopted in many countries, which requires driving automobiles on the right side of the road. Secondly, how do institutions affect behaviour? In this perspective, the focus is on behaviour arising from a given set of institutional rules.
In these models, institutions determine the rules i. Douglass North argues, the very emergence of an institution reflects behavioral adaptations through his application of increasing returns. For example, the Cournot duopoly model is based on an institution involving an auctioneer who sells all goods at the market-clearing price. While it is always possible to analyze behaviour with the institutions-as-equilibria approach instead, it is much more complicated. In political science , the effect of institutions on behavior has also been considered from a meme perspective, like game theory borrowed from biology. A "memetic institutionalism" has been proposed, suggesting that institutions provide selection environments for political action, whereby differentiated retention arises and thereby a Darwinian evolution of institutions over time.
Public choice theory , another branch of economics with a close relationship to political science, considers how government policy choices are made, and seeks to determine what the policy outputs are likely to be, given a particular political decision-making process and context. Credibility thesis purports that institutions emerge from intentional institution-building but never in the originally intended form. In history, a distinction between eras or periods, implies a major and fundamental change in the system of institutions governing a society. Political and military events are judged to be of historical significance to the extent that they are associated with changes in institutions.
In European history, particular significance is attached to the long transition from the feudal institutions of the Middle Ages to the modern institutions, which govern contemporary life. Scholars have proposed different approaches to the emergence of institutions, such as spontaneous emergence, evolution and social contracts. Some scholars argue that institutions can emerge spontaneously without intent as individuals and groups converge on a particular institutional arrangement. Other scholars see institutions as being formed through social contracts  or rational purposeful designs. In order to understand why some institutions persist and other institutions only appear in certain contexts, it is important to understand what drives institutional change.
Acemoglu, Johnson and Robinson assert that institutional change is endogenous. They posit a framework for institutional change that is rooted in the distribution of resources across society and preexisting political institutions. These two factors determine de jure and de facto political power, respectively, which in turn defines this period's economic institutions and next period's political institutions.
Finally, the current economic institutions determine next period's distribution of resources and the cycle repeats. These entrepreneurs weigh the expected costs of altering the institutional framework against the benefits they can derive from the change. Lipscy argues that patterns of institutional change vary according to underlying characteristics of issue areas, such as network effects. In a study, Johannes Gerschewski created a two-by-two typology of institutional change depending on the sources of change exogenous or endogenous and the time horizon of change short or long.
North argues that because of the preexisting influence that existing organizations have over the existing framework, change that is brought about is often in the interests of these organizations. This produces a phenomenon called path dependence, which states that institutional patterns are persistent and endure over time. Once a choice is made during a critical juncture, it becomes progressively difficult to return to the initial point where the choice was made.Shame was a profoundly social concept that was, in ancient Rome, always mediated by gender Analysis Of Antonias Argument About Family Guy Role Of Social Institutions In Education. The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought. Eugene, Role Of Social Institutions In Education Cascade Books. McLynn Role Of Social Institutions In Education that "the encounter at the church door has long been known as a pious fiction.