⌛ What Are The Effects Of The Progressive Era

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What Are The Effects Of The Progressive Era



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The Progressive Movement

Many Progressives sought to enable the citizenry to rule more directly and circumvent machines, bosses and professional politicians. The institution of the initiative and referendums made it possible to pass laws without the involvement of the legislature, while the recall allowed for the removal of corrupt or under-performing officials, and the direct primary let people democratically nominate candidates, avoiding the professionally dominated conventions. U'Ren and his Direct Legislation League , voters in Oregon overwhelmingly approved a ballot measure in that created the initiative and referendum processes for citizens to directly introduce or approve proposed laws or amendments to the state constitution, making Oregon the first state to adopt such a system.

U'Ren also helped in the passage of an amendment in that gave voters power to recall elected officials, and would go on to establish, at the state level, popular election of U. Senators and the first presidential primary in the United States. In , California governor Hiram Johnson established the Oregon System of "Initiative, Referendum, and Recall" in his state, viewing them as good influences for citizen participation against the historic influence of large corporations on state lawmakers. About 16 states began using primary elections to reduce the power of bosses and machines. The main motivation was to reduce the power of political bosses, who controlled the Senate seats by virtue of their control of state legislatures.

The result, according to political scientist Henry Jones Ford , was that the United States Senate had become a "Diet of party lords, wielding their power without scruple or restraint, on behalf of those particular interests" that put them in office. Reformers also sought to streamline government through the introduction of the short ballot. By reducing the number of elected officials and consolidating their power in singular officials like a governor they hoped to increase accountability and clarity in government. A coalition of middle-class reform-oriented voters, academic experts, and reformers hostile to the political machines started forming in the s and introduced a series of reforms in urban America, designed to reduce waste, inefficiency and corruption, by introducing scientific methods, compulsory education and administrative innovations.

Pingree first put together the reform coalition. In Illinois , Governor Frank Lowden undertook a major reorganization of state government. As late as , half the population lived in rural areas. They experienced their own progressive reforms, typically with the explicit goal of upgrading country life. The most urgent need was better transportation. The railroad system was virtually complete; the need was for much better roads. The traditional method of putting the burden on maintaining roads on local landowners was increasingly inadequate. New York State took the lead in , and by the old system had been discarded in every area.

Demands grew for local and state government to take charge. With the coming of the automobile after , urgent efforts were made to upgrade and modernize dirt roads designed for horse-drawn wagon traffic. The American Association for Highway Improvement was organized in Funding came from automobile registration, and taxes on motor fuels, as well as state aid. In , federal-aid was first made available to improve post-roads, and promote general commerce.

There were 2. The rapidly increasing speed of automobiles, and especially trucks, made maintenance and repair a high priority. Concrete was first used in , and expanded until it became the dominant surfacing material in the s. Rural schools were often poorly funded, one room operations. Typically, classes were taught by young local women before they married, with only occasional supervision by county superintendents. The progressive solution was modernization through consolidation, with the result of children attending modern schools.

There they would be taught by full-time professional teachers who had graduated from the states' teachers colleges, were certified, and were monitored by the county superintendents. Farmers complained at the expense, and also at the loss of control over local affairs, but in state after state the consolidation process went forward. Numerous other programs were aimed at rural youth, including 4-H clubs, [] Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts.

County fairs not only gave prizes for the most productive agricultural practices, they also demonstrated those practices to an attentive rural audience. Programs for new mothers included maternity care and training in baby care. The movement's attempts at introducing urban reforms to rural America often met resistance from traditionalists who saw the country-lifers as aggressive modernizers who were condescending and out of touch with rural life. The traditionalists said many of their reforms were unnecessary and not worth the trouble of implementing. Rural residents also disagreed with the notion that farms needed to improve their efficiency, as they saw this goal as serving urban interests more than rural ones. The social conservatism of many rural residents also led them to resist attempts for change led by outsiders.

Most important, the traditionalists did not want to become modern, and did not want their children inculcated with alien modern values through comprehensive schools that were remote from local control. The Progressives fixed some of their reforms into law by adding amendments 16, 17, 18, and 19 to the US Constitution. The 16th amendment made an income tax legal this required an amendment due to Article One, Section 9 of the Constitution, which required that direct taxes be laid on the States in proportion to their population as determined by the decennial census. The Progressives also made strides in attempts to reduce political corruption through the 17th amendment direct election of U. The most radical and controversial amendment came during the anti-German craze of World War I that helped the Progressives and others push through their plan for prohibition through the 18th amendment once the Progressives fell out of power the 21st amendment repealed the 18th in The ratification of the 19th amendment in , which recognized women's suffrage was the last amendment during the progressive era.

In , Benjamin Gitlow was convicted under the Espionage Act of and the case went all the way to the Supreme Court, where the justices decided that the First Amendment applied to the states as well as the federal government. Prior to that time, the Bill of Rights was considered to apply only to the federal government, not the states. The Progressive Era was one of general prosperity after the Panic of —a severe depression—ended in The Panic of was short and mostly affected financiers.

However, Campbell stresses the weak points of the economy in —, linking them to public demands for more Progressive interventions. The Panic of was followed by a small decline in real wages and increased unemployment, with both trends continuing until World War I. Campbell emphasizes the resulting stress on public finance and the impact on the Wilson administration's policies. The weakened economy and persistent federal deficits led to changes in fiscal policy, including the imposition of federal income taxes on businesses and individuals and the creation of the Federal Reserve System.

In the Gilded Age late 19th century the parties were reluctant to involve the federal government too heavily in the private sector, except in the area of railroads and tariffs. In general, they accepted the concept of laissez-faire , a doctrine opposing government interference in the economy except to maintain law and order. This attitude started to change during the depression of the s when small business, farm, and labor movements began asking the government to intercede on their behalf. By the start of the 20th century, a middle class had developed that was weary of both the business elite and the radical political movements of farmers and laborers in the Midwest and West.

The Progressives argued the need for government regulation of business practices to ensure competition and free enterprise. Congress enacted a law regulating railroads in the Interstate Commerce Act , and one preventing large firms from controlling a single industry in the Sherman Antitrust Act. These laws were not rigorously enforced, however, until the years between and , when Republican President Theodore Roosevelt — , Democratic President Woodrow Wilson — , and others sympathetic to the views of the Progressives came to power.

Many of today's U. Muckrakers were journalists who encouraged readers to demand more regulation of business. Upton Sinclair 's The Jungle was influential and persuaded America about the supposed horrors of the Chicago Union Stock Yards , a giant complex of meat processing plants that developed in the s. The federal government responded to Sinclair's book and the Neill—Reynolds Report with the new regulatory Food and Drug Administration. Ida M. Tarbell wrote a series of articles against Standard Oil , which was perceived to be a monopoly. This affected both the government and the public reformers.

Attacks by Tarbell and others helped pave the way for public acceptance of the breakup of the company by the Supreme Court in When Democrat Woodrow Wilson was elected president with a Democratic Congress in he implemented a series of Progressive policies in economics. In , the Sixteenth Amendment was ratified, and a small income tax was imposed on higher incomes. The Democrats lowered tariffs with the Underwood Tariff in , though its effects were overwhelmed by the changes in trade caused by the World War that broke out in Wilson proved especially effective in mobilizing public opinion behind tariff changes by denouncing corporate lobbyists, addressing Congress in person in highly dramatic fashion, and staging an elaborate ceremony when he signed the bill into law.

He managed to convince lawmakers on the issues of money and banking by the creation in of the Federal Reserve System , a complex business-government partnership that to this day dominates the financial world. In , Henry Ford dramatically increased the efficiency of his factories by large-scale use of the moving assembly line, with each worker doing one simple task in the production of automobiles. Emphasizing efficiency, Ford more than doubled wages and cut hours from 9 a day to 8 , attracting the best workers and sharply reducing labor turnover and absenteeism.

His employees could and did buy his cars, and by cutting prices over and over he made the Model T cheap enough for millions of people to buy in the U. Ford's profits soared and his company dominated the world's automobile industry. Henry Ford became the world-famous prophet of high wages and high profits. They published a book titled "Middletown [] " in In this study they found how the automobile impacted American families. Budgets changed dramatically and the automobile has revolutionized how people spent their free time.

The influx of immigration grew steadily after , with most new arrivals being unskilled workers from southern and eastern Europe. These immigrants were able to find work in the steel mills, slaughterhouses, fishing industry, and construction crews of the emergent mill towns and industrial cities mostly in the Northeast, Midwest, and West Coast. The outbreak of World War I in halted most transcontinental immigration, only after did the flow of immigrants resume. Starting in the s, the labor unions aggressively promoted restrictions on immigration, especially restrictions on Chinese, Japanese and Korean immigrants. As a result, many large corporations were opposed to immigration restrictions.

By the early s, a consensus had been reached that the total influx of immigration had to be restricted, and a series of laws in the s accomplished that purpose. During World War I, the Progressives strongly promoted Americanization programs, designed to modernize the recent immigrants and turn them into model American citizens, while diminishing loyalties to the old country. Progressives looked to legal arbitration as an alternative to warfare. The two leading proponents were Taft, a constitutional lawyer who later became Chief Justice, and Democratic leaders William Jennings Bryan. Taft's political base was the conservative business community which largely supported peace movements before The businessmen believed that economic rivalries were cause of war, and that extensive trade led to an interdependent world that would make war a very expensive and useless anachronism.

One early success came in the Newfoundland fisheries dispute between the United States and Britain in In Taft's diplomats signed wide-ranging arbitration treaties with France and Britain. They were dueling for control of the Republican Party and Roosevelt encouraged the Senate to impose amendments that significantly weakened the treaties. On the one hand, Roosevelt was acting to sabotage Taft's campaign promises. The Roosevelt in approach incorporated a near-mystical faith of the ennobling nature of war. It endorsed jingoistic nationalism as opposed to the businessmen's calculation of profit and national interest. Foreign policy in the progressive era was often marked by a tone of moral supremacy.

Woodrow Wilson and William Jennings Bryan both saw themselves as 'Missionaries of Democracy', with the deliberate religious overtone. Historian Arthur S. Link says they felt they were, "Inspired by the confidence that they knew better how to promote the peace and well-being of other countries than did the leaders of those countries themselves. Using this moralistic approach, Roosevelt argued for intervention with Cuba to help it to become a "just and stable civilization", by way of the Platt amendment. Wilson used a similar moralistic tone when dealing with Mexico. In , while revolutionaries took control of the government, Wilson judged them to be immoral, and refused to acknowledge the in-place government on that reason alone. The Philippines were acquired by the United States in , after victory over Spanish forces at the Battle of Manila Bay and a long series of controversial political debates between the senate and President McKinley and was considered the largest colonial acquisition by the United States at this time.

While anti-imperialist sentiments had been prevalent in the United States during this time, the acquisition of the Philippines sparked the relatively minor population into action. Voicing their opinions in public, they sought to deter American leaders from keeping the Asian-Pacific nation and to avoid the temptations of expansionist tendencies that were widely viewed as "un-American" at that time. Philippines was a major target for the progressive reformers. A report to Secretary of War Taft provided a summary of what the American civil administration had achieved. It included, in addition to the rapid building of a public school system based on English teaching, and boasted about such modernizing achievements as:.

In the American reformers in the Philippines passed two major land acts designed to turn landless peasants into owners of their farms. By the law was clearly a failure. Reformers such as Taft believed landownership would turn unruly agrarians into loyal subjects. The social structure in rural Philippines was highly traditional and highly unequal. Drastic changes in land ownership posed a major challenge to local elites, who would not accept it, nor would their peasant clients. The American reformers blamed peasant resistance to landownership for the law's failure and argued that large plantations and sharecropping was the Philippines' best path to development.

Elite Filipina women played a major role in the reform movement, especially on health issues. They specialized on such urgent needs as infant care and maternal and child health, the distribution of pure milk and teaching new mothers about children's health. Some Progressives sponsored eugenics as a solution to excessively large or underperforming families, hoping that birth control would enable parents to focus their resources on fewer, better children. Prohibition was the outlawing of the manufacture, sale and transport of alcohol.

Drinking itself was never prohibited. Throughout the Progressive Era, it remained one of the prominent causes associated with Progressivism at the local, state and national level, though support across the full breadth of Progressives was mixed. It pitted the minority urban Catholic population against the larger rural Protestant element, and Progressivism's rise in the rural communities was aided in part by the general increase in public consciousness of social issues of the temperance movement , which achieved national success with the passage of the 18th Amendment by Congress in late , and the ratification by three-fourths of the states in Prohibition was backed by the Methodists, Baptists, Congregationalists, Scandinavian Lutherans and other evangelical churches.

Activists were mobilized by the highly effective Anti-Saloon League. Agitation for prohibition began during the Second Great Awakening in the s when crusades against drinking originated from evangelical Protestants. During the s, referendums were held at the state level to enact prohibition amendments. Two important groups were formed during this period. Rather than condemn all drinking, the group focused attention on the saloon which was considered the ultimate symbol of public vice.

The league also concentrated on campaigns for the right of individual communities to choose whether to close their saloons. In , Congress passed the Webb-Kenyon Act , which forbade the transport of liquor into dry states. By , two-thirds of the states had some form of prohibition laws and roughly three-quarters of the population lived in dry areas. In , the Anti-Saloon League first publicly appealed for a prohibition amendment. They preferred a constitutional amendment over a federal statute because although harder to achieve, they felt it would be harder to change. The War Prohibition Act, November, , forbade the manufacture and sale of intoxicating beverages more than 2.

The drys worked energetically to secure two-thirds majority of both houses of Congress and the support of three-quarters of the states needed for an amendment to the federal constitution. Thirty-six states were needed, and organizations were set up at all 48 states to seek ratification. In late , Congress passed the Eighteenth Amendment; it was ratified in and took effect in January It prohibited the manufacturing, sale or transport of intoxicating beverages within the United States, as well as import and export. The Volstead Act , , defined intoxicating as having alcohol content greater than 0. The states were at liberty to enforce prohibition or not, and most did not try. Consumer demand, however, led to a variety of illegal sources for alcohol, especially illegal distilleries and smuggling from Canada and other countries.

It is difficult to determine the level of compliance, and although the media at the time portrayed the law as highly ineffective, even if it did not eradicate the use of alcohol, it certainly decreased alcohol consumption during the period. The Eighteenth Amendment was repealed in , with the passage of the Twenty-First Amendment, thanks to a well-organized repeal campaign led by Catholics who stressed personal liberty and businessmen who stressed the lost tax revenue.

Prohibition , which also brought a rise to organized crime, who was able to profit off the sales of illegal alcohol. Al Capone was one of the most well-known criminals to partake in illegal alcohol sales. There was a huge demand for alcohol, but most business owners were unwilling to risk getting involved in the transportation of alcohol. The business owners did however have little issue with selling the alcohol that the criminals like Capone provided. Organized Crime was able to be successful due to their willingness to use intimidation and violence to carry out their illicit enterprises. During prohibition, the mafia was able to grow their stronghold on illegal activities throughout the United States.

This illegal behavior began almost in conjunction with prohibition being voted into law. Within the first hours of prohibition, the police in Chicago reported the theft of medicinal liquor. The reform of schools and other educational institutions was one of the prime concerns of the middle class during this time period. The number of schools in the nation increased dramatically, as did the need for a better more-rounded education system.

The face of the Progressive Education Movement in America was John Dewey, a professor at the University of Chicago — who advocated for schools to incorporate everyday skills instead of only teaching academic content. Dewey felt the younger generation was losing the opportunity to learn the art of democratic participation and in turn wrote many novels such as The Child and the Curriculum and Schools of tomorrow. A higher level of education also gained popularity. By , A new field of study, the art and science of homemaking, emerged in the Progressive Era in an effort to feminize women's education in the United States. Home economics emerged at the end of the nineteenth century in response to the many changes occurring both at the level of material culture and practices and in the more abstract realm of gender ideology and thinking about the home.

As the industrial revolution took hold of the American economy and as mass production, alienation, and urbanization appeared to be unstoppable trends, Americans looked for solutions that could soften the effects of change without slowing down the engines of progress. Advocates of home economics argued that homemaking, as a profession, required education and training for the development of an efficient and systematic domestic practice. The curriculum aimed to cover a variety of topics, including teaching a standardized ways of gardening, child-rearing, cooking, cleaning, performing household maintenance, and doctoring.

Such scientific management applied to the domestic sphere was presented as a solution to the dilemma and the black middle-class women faced in terms of searching for meaning and fulfillment in their role of housekeeping. The feminist perspective, by pushing for this type of education, intended to explain that women had separate but equally important responsibilities in life with men that required proper training.

There was a concern towards working-class children being taken out of school to be put straight to work. Progressives around the country put up campaigns to push for an improvement in public education and to make education mandatory. It was further pushed in the South, where education was very much behind compared to the rest of the country. The Southern Education Board came together to publicize the importance of reform. However, many rejected the reform. Farmers and workers relied heavily on their eldest children, their first born, to work and help the family's income.

Immigrants were not for reform either, fearing that such a thing would Americanize their children. Despite those fighting against reform, there was a positive outcome to the fight for reform. Enrollment for children age 5 to 19 in school rose from Enrollment in public secondary school went from , to , School funds and the term of public schools also grew. The Flexner Report of , sponsored by the Carnegie Foundation , professionalized American medicine by discarding the scores of local small medical schools and focusing national funds, resources, and prestige on larger, professionalized medical schools associated with universities. It established national standards for law schools, which led to the replacement of the old system of young men studying law privately with established lawyers by the new system of accredited law schools associated with universities.

Progressive scholars, based at the emerging research universities such as Harvard , Columbia , Johns Hopkins , Chicago , Michigan , Wisconsin and California , worked to modernize their disciplines. The heyday of the amateur expert gave way to the research professor who published in the new scholarly journals and presses. Their explicit goal was to professionalize and make "scientific" the social sciences, especially history , [5] economics , [6] and political science. In the s typically historians saw the Progressive Era as a prelude to the New Deal and dated it from when Roosevelt became president to the start of World War I in or Much less settled is the question of when the era ended.

Some historians who emphasize civil liberties decry their suppression during World War I and do not consider the war as rooted in Progressive policy. The Senate voted 82—6 in favor; the House agreed, — Some historians see the so-called "war to end all wars" as a globalized expression of the American Progressive movement, with Wilson's support for a League of Nations as its climax. The politics of the s was unfriendly toward the labor unions and liberal crusaders against business, so many if not most historians who emphasize those themes write off the decade. Urban cosmopolitan scholars recoiled at the moralism of prohibition, the intolerance of the nativists and the KKK, and on those grounds denounced the era.

Richard Hofstadter , for example, in wrote that prohibition, "was a pseudo-reform, a pinched, parochial substitute for reform" that "was carried about America by the rural-evangelical virus". Link emphasized, the Progressives did not simply roll over and play dead. Palmer, pointing to leaders like George Norris , says, "It is worth noting that progressivism, whilst temporarily losing the political initiative, remained popular in many western states and made its presence felt in Washington during both the Harding and Coolidge presidencies. While some Progressive leaders became reactionaries, that usually happened in the s, not in the s, as exemplified by William Randolph Hearst , [] Herbert Hoover , Al Smith and Henry Ford.

The October Revolution shortly followed, which empowered the Bolsheviks to seize control of much of Russia. The ensuing Red Terror generated fear among Americans, who had come out of the First World War with several new security laws such as the Espionage Act in , the Sedition Act of , and the Immigration Act of This legislation enabled the American government to investigate and prosecute anarchists in response to terrorist attacks. Bombings by Galleanist anarchists in the spring of contributed to a public hysteria about the communist threat, now called the First Red Scare.

The five-day strike was short-lived due to a crackdown by Mayor Ole Hanson , who attained fame from ending the strike and raising awareness of what he considered to be the dangers of Bolshevism. In the latter half of the year, the Boston Police Strike , Steel Strike of , and Coal Strike of created numerous battles between the government and organized labor. Mitchell Palmer. Thousands of suspected leftists were arrested, particularly those with communist or anarchist ties, and many were deported.

The bulk of those charged were Italians , Eastern Europeans, and Jews. Post , a newly-appointed Assistant Secretary of Labor and Georgist , cancelled the majority of the charges in his temporary capacity as Acting Secretary. The action was passed by a legislative supermajority, but was widely denounced by both parties, including by progressive Democratic governor Al Smith and the progressive Republican Charles Evan Hughes , the party's candidate and New York's former governor.

Edgar Hoover 's General Intelligence Division, warned the public of an imminent plot to overthrow the American government on May Day , including bombings, assassinations, and uprisings. This scare contributed to the quick decline of anti-Bolshevik hysteria in the United States thereafter. Although the Red Scare wound down towards the end of , the Wall Street bombing kept the threat of anarchist violence in the public consciousness, despite investigations never determining the motive or perpetrators of the attack. What historians have identified as "business progressivism", with its emphasis on efficiency and typified by Henry Ford and Herbert Hoover [] reached an apogee in the s.

Wik, for example, argues that Ford's "views on technology and the mechanization of rural America were generally enlightened, progressive, and often far ahead of his times. Tindall stresses the continuing importance of the Progressive movement in the South in the s involving increased democracy, efficient government, corporate regulation, social justice, and governmental public service.

Historians of women and of youth emphasize the strength of the Progressive impulse in the s. Paul Fass, speaking of youth, says "Progressivism as an angle of vision, as an optimistic approach to social problems, was very much alive. By a block of progressive Republicans in the Senate were urging Hoover to take more vigorous action to fight the depression. Norris of Nebraska, Robert M. La Follette Jr. Cutting of New Mexico. While these western Republicans could stir up issues, they could rarely forge a majority, since they were too individualistic and did not form a unified caucus.

They remained staunch isolationists deeply opposed to any involvement in Europe. Outside the Senate, however, a strong majority of the surviving Progressives from the s had become conservative opponents of New Deal economic planning. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Era of United States history between and For other uses, see Progressive Era disambiguation. Timeline and periods. By group. See also. Historiography List of years in the United States. Civil liberties Cultural liberalism Economic development Broad measures Economic growth Empirical evidence Direct democracy Freedom of movement Human enhancement Idea of Progress Industrialisation Liberation theology Linear history Modernity Philosophical progress Philosophy of progress Progressive education in Latin America Reform movement Social justice Social justice warrior Social organization Social progress List of countries Scientific progress Social change Sustainable design Ecological engineering Self-determination Scientific management Scientific method Sustainable development Technological change Techno-progressivism Welfare Women's suffrage.

By region. Democratic socialism Left-libertarianism Left-wing populism Liberalism Modern liberalism Radical liberalism Social liberalism Social democracy Technocracy. Further information: Muckraker and Mass media and American politics. Further information: Efficiency Movement. Further information: Initiatives and referendums in the United States , Primary election , and Short ballot. Theodore Roosevelt —; left , William Howard Taft —; center and Woodrow Wilson —; right were the main progressive U.

Presidents; their administrations saw intense social and political change in American society. Further information: Country life movement. Main article: Eugenics in the United States. Main article: First Red Scare. Jane Addams , social reformer Susan B. Anthony , suffragist Robert P. Bass , New Hampshire politician Charles A. Debs , American socialist, political activist, trade unionist, and five times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States. John Dewey , philosopher W. Jones , politician, reformer Florence Kelley , child advocate Robert M. Rockefeller Jr. Buenker, John C. Boosham, and Robert M. Timberlake, Prohibition and the progressive movement, — pp 1—7.

Oxford University Press. Princeton University Press. Lastly, the work of Washington, Du Bois, Wells, Terrell, and countless others ultimately led to the protests of the Civil Rights Movement sixty years later. Share Flipboard Email. Table of Contents Expand. The Progressive Movement. African American Reformers of the Progressive Era. Women's Suffrage.

African American Newspapers. Resources and Further Reading. Femi Lewis. African American History Expert. Femi Lewis is a writer and educator who specializes in African American history topics, including enslavement, activism, and the Harlem Renaissance. Updated December 12, Cite this Article Format. Lewis, Femi. African Americans in the Progressive Era. Biography of W. Du Bois, Black Activist and Scholar. African-American Organizations of the Progressive Era.

The African American Press Timeline: to Black History and Women's Timeline: — Biography of Ida B.

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