➊ Aztec Calendar

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Aztec Calendar



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Aztec Calendar

The tonalpohualli, or day-count, has been called a sacred calendar because its main purpose is that of a divinatory tool. It divides the days and rituals between the gods. For the Aztec mind this is extremely important. Without it the world would soon come to an end. According to Aztec cosmology, the universe is in a very delicate equilibrium. Opposing divine forces are competing for power. This equilibrium is in constant danger of being disrupted by shifting powers of the gods, of the elemental forces that influence our lives. This struggle cannot be won by any god.

The notion that everything ultimately consists of two opposing forces is essential to the Aztec worldview. The world is always on the brink of going under in a spiritual war, a war of gods competing for supreme power. To prevent this from happening, the gods have been given their own space, their own time, their own social groups, etcetera, to rule over. The tonalpohualli tells us how time is divided among the gods. The system of the tonalpohualli can be best understood by imagining two wheels that are connected to each other. One wheel has the numbers "one" to "thirteen" written on it. The second wheel has twenty symbols on it. In the initial situation, number "one" combines with the first symbol.

This is the first day of the tonalpohualli. Now the wheels start moving and number "two" combines with the second glyph. There are numerous Aztec temples, both in these cities and others. The Great Pyramid of Cholula is the largest pyramid by volume in the world, and the largest monument ever constructed. The Cholula temple has its own page. Another temple featured on this site is the great pyramid temple of Teopanzolco. The ruins at Teotenango also contain temples. Temples were built in each region of a city, and there were also mountain temples - often carved right out of the side of the mountain.

It is believed that as late as the 19th century a child was sacrificed at one of these Aztec temples. Of course, many of the so-called Aztec temples were temples that existed before the Aztec empire did. Many peoples and cities were conquered and forced to pay tribute, becoming a part of the empire. One city like this was Xochicalco - a pyramid at the top of this page is from Xochicalco.

Many Aztec temples and other ruins are mapped at Google here. If you look at the "related maps" at the bottom of the page, you'll find even more maps in various categories. The Aztec temples are still major religious destinations today. Some now have Roman Catholic Churches built over top, others are still just pyramids where people come to pray to the gods, or come, they believe, to gain some special power. If you quote this material please be courteous and provide a link. The Spaniards then murdered thousands of Aztec nobles during a ritual dance ceremony, and Montezuma died under uncertain circumstances while in custody. European diseases like smallpox, mumps and measles were also powerful weapons against the local population, who lacked immunity to them.

After his victory, Cortes razed Tenochtitla and built Mexico City on its ruins; it quickly became the premier European center in the New World. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. The Maya Empire, centered in the tropical lowlands of what is now Guatemala, reached the peak of its power and influence around the sixth century A. The Maya excelled at agriculture, pottery, hieroglyph writing, calendar-making and mathematics, and left behind an astonishing The Aztec Empire was a shifting and fragile alliance of three principle city-states. The Aztec Triple Alliance exerted tremendous power over a Teotihuacan is an ancient Mesoamerican city located 30 miles 50 km northeast of modern-day Mexico City.

Aztec priests, using razor-sharp obsidian blades, sliced open the chests of sacrificial victims and offered their The history of chocolate can be traced to the ancient Mayans, and even earlier to the ancient Olmecs of southern Mexico. The word chocolate may conjure up images of sweet candy bars and luscious truffles, but the chocolate of today is little like the chocolate of the past. The ancient Maya, a diverse group of indigenous people who lived in parts of present-day Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras, had one of the most sophisticated and complex civilizations in the Western Hemisphere.

Between about and A. Tikal is a complex of Mayan ruins deep in the rainforests of northern Guatemala. Historians believe that the more than 3, structures on the site are the remains of a Mayan city called Yax Mutal, which was the capital of one of the most powerful kingdoms of the ancient empire.

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